Somalia Government

What is the capital of Somalia?

Country Name Somalia
Full Country Name Federal Republic of Somalia
Local - Long Jamhuuriyadda Federaalka Soomaaliya (Somali)/ Jumhuriyat as Sumal al Fidiraliyah (Arabic)
Local - Short Soomaaliya (Somali)/ As Sumal (Arabic)
Former Name British Somaliland, Italian Somaliland, Somali Republic, Somali Democratic Republic
Etymology- history of name "Land of the Somali" (ethnic group)
Government Type federal parliamentary republic
Capital Name Mogadishu
Capital - geographic coordinate 2 04 N, 45 20 E
Capital Time Difference UTC+3 (8 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Independence 1 July 1960 (from a merger of British Somaliland, which became independent from the UK on 26 June 1960, and Italian Somaliland, which became independent from the Italian-administered UN trusteeship on 1 July 1960 to form the Somali Republic)
National Holiday Foundation of the Somali Republic, 1 July (1960); note - 26 June (1960) in Somaliland
Constitution history: previous 1961, 1979; latest drafted 12 June 2012, adopted 1 August 2012 (provisional)

amendments: proposed by the federal government, by members of the state governments, the Federal Parliament, or by public petition; proposals require review by a joint committee of Parliament with inclusion of public comments and state legislatures’ comments; passage requires at least two-thirds majority vote in both houses of Parliament and approval by a majority of votes cast in a referendum; constitutional clauses on Islamic principles, the federal system, human rights and freedoms, powers and authorities of the government branches, and inclusion of women in national institutions cannot be amended; amended 2024

Somalia Capital City Map

Source: Google Maps

Somalia Government and Politics

Who is the president of Somalia?

Executive Branch: chief of state: President HASSAN SHEIKH Mohamud (since 23 May 2022)

head of government: Prime Minister Hamza Abdi BARRE (since 25 June 2022)

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the prime minister, approved by the House of the People

elections/appointments: president indirectly elected by the Federal Parliament by two-thirds majority vote in 2 rounds if needed for a single 4-year term; election last held on 15 May 2022 (next to be held in 2026); prime minister appointed by the president, approved by the House of the People

election results:

2022: HASSAN SHEIKH Mohamud elected president in third round - Federal Parliament percent of vote in first round - Said ABDULLAHI DENI (Kaah) 20.2%, Mohamed ABDULLAHI Mohamed "Farmaajo" (TPP) 18.3%, HASSAN SHEIKH Mohamud (PDP) 16.2%, Hassan Ali KHAYRE (independent) 14.6%, other 30.7%; Federal Parliament percent of vote in second round - HASSAN SHEIKH Mohamud 34.1%, Mohamed ABDULLAHI Mohamed "Farmaajo" 25.7%, Said ABDULLAHI DENI 21%, Hassan Ali KHAYRE 19.2%; Federal Parliament percent of vote in third round - HASSAN SHEIKH Mohamud 66%, Mohamed ABDULLAHI Mohamed "Farmaajo" 34%

2017: Mohamed ABDULLAHI Mohamed "Farmaajo" elected president in second round; Federal Parliament number of votes in first round - HASSAN SHEIKH Mohamud (PDP) 88, Mohamed ABDULLAHI Mohamed "Farmaajo" (TPP) 72, Sheikh SHARIF Sheikh Ahmed (ARS) 49, other 37; Federal Parliament number of votes in second round - Mohamed ABDULLAHI Mohamed "Farmaajo" 184, HASSAN SHEIKH Mohamud 97, Sheikh SHARIF Sheikh Ahmed 45
Citizenship Criteria: citizenship by birth: no

citizenship by descent only: the father must be a citizen of Somalia

dual citizenship recognized: no

residency requirement for naturalization: 7 years
Legal System: mixed legal system of civil law, Islamic (sharia) law, and customary law (referred to as Xeer)
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal suffrage starting with 24 June 2024 local elections
Legislative Branch: description: bicameral Federal Parliament to consist of:

Senate (54 seats; senators indirectly elected by state assemblies to serve 4-year terms)

House of the People (275 seats; members indirectly elected by electoral colleges, each consisting of 51 delegates selected by the 136 Traditional Elders in consultation with sub-clan elders; members serve 4-year terms)

elections: Senate - first held on 10 October 2016; last held 27 July - 13 November 2021 (next to be held in 2024)

House of the People - first held 23 October - 10 November 2016 (next scheduled for September - October 2021 but postponed to November 2021 and then extended several times until April 2022; next to be held in June 2024)

election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NA; composition as of February 2024 - men 40, women 14, percentage women 25.9%

House of the People - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NA; composition as of February 2024 - men 221, women 54, percentage women 19.6%; total Federal Parliament percentage women 20.7%

note 1: the inaugural House of the People was appointed in September 2012 by clan elders; in 2016 and 2017, the Federal Parliament became bicameral with indirect elections scheduled for 10 October 2016 for the Upper House - renamed 'Senate' and 23 October to 10 November 2016 for the House of the People; while the elections were delayed, they were eventually held in most regions despite voting irregularities; on 27 December 2016, 41 Upper House senators and 242 House of the People Members of Parliament were sworn in

note 2: despite the formation of political parties in 2020, the 2021 parliamentary elections maintained a primarily clan-based system of appointments; seats in the legislature were apportioned to Somali member states and not by party representation
Judicial Branch: highest court(s): the provisional constitution stipulates the establishment of the Constitutional Court (consists of 5 judges, including the chief judge and deputy chief judge); note - under the terms of the 2004 Transitional National Charter, a Supreme Court based in Mogadishu and the Appeal Court were established; yet most regions have reverted to local forms of conflict resolution, either secular, traditional Somali customary law, or Islamic law

judge selection and term of office: judges appointed by the president upon proposal of the Judicial Service Commission, a 9-member judicial and administrative body; judge tenure NA

subordinate courts: federal courts; federal member state-level courts; military courts; sharia courts
Regions or States: 18 regions (plural - gobollo, singular - gobol); Awdal, Bakool, Banaadir, Bari, Bay, Galguduud, Gedo, Hiiraan, Jubbada Dhexe (Middle Jubba), Jubbada Hoose (Lower Jubba), Mudug, Nugaal, Sanaag, Shabeellaha Dhexe (Middle Shabeelle), Shabeellaha Hoose (Lower Shabeelle), Sool, Togdheer, Woqooyi Galbeed
Political Parties and Leaders: select National Independent Electoral Commission (NIEC) approved parties (as of 2020):

Cosmopolitan Democratic Party [Yarow Sharef ADEN]

Green Party [Ahmed HAJI]

Himilo Qaran Party [Sharif SHEIKH AHMED]

Ilays Party [Abdulkadir OSOBLE]

Justice and Reconciliation Party

National Progressive Party

Peace and Unity Party [Asha ABDALLA]

Qaransoor Party [Abdijabaar SHEIKH AHMED]

Qiimo Qaran Party

Security and Justice Party

Social Justice Party [Mohamed NUR, chairman]

Somali Labour Party[Ali Mohamed APOLLO, chairman]

Somali Republic Party [Abdinur Ahmed DARMAN, chairman]

Somali Social Unity Party or SSUP [Yaasiin Maaxi MACALIN]

Union for Peace and Development Party or PDP [HASSAN SHEIKH Mohamud]

Wadajir Party [Abdirahman Abdishakur WARSAME]

note: in 2017 an independent electoral commission (the NIEC) was inaugurated with a mandate to oversee the process of registration of political parties in the country; as of 2021, the NIEC had registered a total of 110 parties
International Law Organization Participation: accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; non-party state to the ICCt
International Organization Participation: ACP, AfDB, AFESD, AMF, AU, CAEU (candidate), EAC, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGAD, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ITSO, ITU, LAS, NAM, OIC, OPCW, OPCW (signatory), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNHRC, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO
Diplomatic Representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Ali Sharif AHMED (since 16 September 2019)

chancery: 1609 22nd Street NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 853-9164

email address and website:
Diplomatic Representation from US: chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Chargé d'Affaires Shane L. DIXON (since 25 July 2023)

embassy: Mogadishu, (reopened October 2019 on the grounds of the Mogadishu Airport)

mailing address: P.O. Box 606 Village Market

00621 Nairobi, Kenya

telephone: [254] 20 363-6451

email address and website:
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