Lebanon Geography

What is the terrain and geography like in Lebanon?

Overview:

Lebanon is renowned for its scenic beauty, although uncontrolled development and exploitation mar many areas. Along the Mediterranean there is a narrow coastal strip, with cities, suburbs, and some banana, citrus, and olive groves. A dramatic mountain chain rises to over 10,000 feet within 20 miles of the coast, with impressive terracing and cultivation. Although pine forests abound, the famed Cedars of Lebanon now exist only in a few small groves preserved in the north and central regions. Distances are short in Lebanon, and travel from the seashore to mountain areas can be done easily in an hour by car.

Geography - note:

smallest country in continental Asia; Nahr el Litani is the only major river in Near East not crossing an international boundary; rugged terrain historically helped isolate, protect, and develop numerous factional groups based on religion, clan, and ethnicity

Climate:

From May through October, sunny weather prevails and rain is infrequent. Temperatures rarely go above 90°F in the summer. Fall and spring are relatively short. Winters are mild (in the city, winter temperatures rarely drop below 40°F and damp. Most of the country's annual rainfall (about 36 inches) occurs from December through March. Winter storms frequently are accompanied by high winds, lightning, and thunder.

Lebanon Use of Natural Resources

Lebanon Environment

Climate:

From May through October, sunny weather prevails and rain is infrequent. Temperatures rarely go above 90°F in the summer. Fall and spring are relatively short. Winters are mild (in the city, winter temperatures rarely drop below 40°F and damp. Most of the country's annual rainfall (about 36 inches) occurs from December through March. Winter storms frequently are accompanied by high winds, lightning, and thunder.

Terrain:

narrow coastal plain; El Beqaa (Bekaa Valley) separates Lebanon and Anti-Lebanon Mountains

Natural Resources:

limestone, iron ore, salt, water-surplus state in a water-deficit region, arable land

Natural Hazards:

dust storms, sandstorms

Irrigated Land:

402 Square Miles
1,040 Square Kilometers

Environmental Issues:

deforestation; soil erosion; desertification; air pollution in Beirut from vehicular traffic and the burning of industrial wastes; pollution of coastal waters from raw sewage and oil spills

Environment - International Agreements:

party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: Environmental Modification, Marine Life Conservation

Lebanon Geography

Geographic Location Middle East
Total Area 4,015 Square Miles
10,400 Square Kilometers
Land Area 3,950 Square Miles
10,230 Square Kilometers
Water Area 66 Square Miles
170 Square Kilometers
Land Boundaries 282 Miles
454 Kilometers
Irrigated Land 402 Square Miles
1,040 Square Kilometers
Border Countries Israel 79 km, Syria 375 km
Coastline 140 Miles
225 Kilometers
Geographic Coordinates 33 50 N, 35 50 E
Terrain narrow coastal plain; El Beqaa (Bekaa Valley) separates Lebanon and Anti-Lebanon Mountains
Highest Point 3,088 Meters
Highest Point Location Qurnat as Sawda' 3,088 m
Lowest Point Location Mediterranean Sea 0 m
Natural Resources limestone, iron ore, salt, water-surplus state in a water-deficit region, arable land
Time Zone UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Daylight saving time +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
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