Where is Montenegro located?

What countries border Montenegro?

Montenegro Weather

What is the current weather in Montenegro?

Montenegro Facts

What is the capital of Montenegro?

Capital Podgorica; note - Cetinje retains the status of "Old Royal Capital"
Government Type parliamentary republic
Currency Euro (EUR)
Total Area 5,333 Square Miles
13,812 Square Kilometers
Location Southeastern Europe, between the Adriatic Sea and Serbia
Language Serbian (Ijekavian dialect - official)
GDP - real growth rate 3.2%
GDP - per capita (PPP) $15,700.00 (USD)

Montenegro Demographics

What is the population of Montenegro?

Ethnic Groups Montenegrin 43%, Serbian 32%, Bosniak 8%, Albanian 5%, other (Muslims, Croats, Roma) 12%
Population 609,859
Population Growth Rate -0.56%
Population in Major Urban Areas PODGORICA (capital) 156,000
Urban Population 63.300000

Montenegro Government

What type of government does Montenegro have?

Executive Branch chief of state: President Jakov MILATOVIC (since 20 May 2023)

head of government: Prime Minister Milojko SPAJIC (since 31 October 2023)

cabinet: ministers act as cabinet

elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 19 March 2023 with a runoff on 2 April 2023 (next to be held in 2028); prime minister nominated by the president, approved by the Assembly

election results:

2023: Jakov MILATOVIC elected president in second round; percent of vote in first round - Milo DUKANOVIC (DPS) 35.4%, Jakov MILATOVIC (Europe Now!) 28.9%, Andrija MANDIC (DF) 19.3%, Aleksa BECIC (DCG) 11.1%, other 5.3%; percent of vote in second round - Jakov MILATOVIC 58.9%, Milo DUKANOVIC 41.1%

2018: Milo DJUKANOVIC elected president in first round; percent of vote - Milo DJUKANOVIC (DPS) 53.9%, Mladen BOJANIC (independent) 33.4%, Draginja VUKSANOVIC (SDP) 8.2%, Marko MILACIC (PRAVA) 2.8%, other 1.7%
Suffrage 18 years of age; universal
Citizenship citizenship by birth: no

citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Montenegro

dual citizenship recognized: no

residency requirement for naturalization: 10 years
National Holiday Statehood Day, 13 July (1878, the day the Berlin Congress recognized Montenegro as the 27th independent state in the world, and 1941, the day the Montenegrins staged an uprising against fascist occupiers and sided with the partisan communist movement)
Constitution history: several previous; latest adopted 22 October 2007

amendments: proposed by the president of Montenegro, by the government, or by at least 25 members of the Assembly; passage of draft proposals requires two-thirds majority vote of the Assembly, followed by a public hearing; passage of draft amendments requires two-thirds majority vote of the Assembly; changes to certain constitutional articles, such as sovereignty, state symbols, citizenship, and constitutional change procedures, require three-fifths majority vote in a referendum; amended 2013
Independence 3 June 2006 (from the State Union of Serbia and Montenegro); notable earlier dates: 13 March 1852 (Principality of Montenegro established); 13 July 1878 (Congress of Berlin recognizes Montenegrin independence); 28 August 1910 (Kingdom of Montenegro established)

Montenegro Video

YouTube, Rick Steves Montenegro: Country of Contrasts

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Montenegro Geography

What environmental issues does Montenegro have?

Overview The use of the name Montenegro began in the 15th century when the Crnojevic dynasty began to rule the Serbian principality of Zeta; over subsequent centuries it was able to maintain its independence from the Ottoman Empire. From the 16th to 19th centuries, Montenegro became a theocratic state ruled by a series of bishop princes; in 1852, it was transformed into a secular principality. After World War I, Montenegro was part of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia, and, at the conclusion of World War II, it became a constituent republic of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. When the latter dissolved in 1992, Montenegro federated with Serbia, first as the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and, after 2003, in a looser union of Serbia and Montenegro. Following a three-year postponement, Montenegro held an independence referendum in the spring of 2006 under rules set by the EU. The vote for severing ties with Serbia exceeded the 55% threshold, allowing Montenegro to formally declare its independence on 3 June 2006.
Climate Mediterranean climate, hot dry summers and autumns and relatively cold winters with heavy snowfalls inland
Border Countries Albania 172 km, Bosnia and Herzegovina 225 km, Croatia 25 km, Serbia 203 km
Environment - Current Issues pollution of coastal waters from sewage outlets, especially in tourist-related areas such as Kotor
Environment - International Agreements party to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Terrain highly indented coastline with narrow coastal plain backed by rugged high limestone mountains and plateaus

Montenegro Economy

How big is the Montenegro economy?

Economic Overview Montenegro's economy is transitioning to a market system. Around 90% of Montenegrin state-owned companies have been privatized, including 100% of banking, telecommunications, and oil distribution. Tourism, which accounts for more than 20% of Montenegro’s GDP, brings in three times as many visitors as Montenegro’s total population every year. Several new luxury tourism complexes are in various stages of development along the coast, and a number are being offered in connection with nearby boating and yachting facilities. In addition to tourism, energy and agriculture are considered two distinct pillars of the economy. Only 20% of Montenegro’s hydropower potential is utilized. Montenegro plans to become a net energy exporter, and the construction of an underwater cable to Italy, which will be completed by the end of 2018, will help meet its goal.

Montenegro uses the euro as its domestic currency, though it is not an official member of the euro zone. In January 2007, Montenegro joined the World Bank and IMF, and in December 2011, the WTO. Montenegro began negotiations to join the EU in 2012, having met the conditions set down by the European Council, which called on Montenegro to take steps to fight corruption and organized crime.

The government recognizes the need to remove impediments in order to remain competitive and open the economy to foreign investors. Net foreign direct investment in 2017 reached $848 million and investment per capita is one of the highest in Europe, due to a low corporate tax rate. The biggest foreign investors in Montenegro in 2017 were Norway, Russia, Italy, Azerbaijan and Hungary.

Montenegro is currently planning major overhauls of its road and rail networks, and possible expansions of its air transportation system. In 2014, the Government of Montenegro selected two Chinese companies to construct a 41 km-long section of the country’s highway system, which will become part of China’s Belt and Road Initiative. Cheaper borrowing costs have stimulated Montenegro’s growing debt, which currently sits at 65.9% of GDP, with a forecast, absent fiscal consolidation, to increase to 80% once the repayment to China’s Ex/Im Bank of a €800 million highway loan begins in 2019. Montenegro first instituted a value-added tax (VAT) in April 2003, and introduced differentiated VAT rates of 17% and 7% (for tourism) in January 2006. The Montenegrin Government increased the non-tourism Value Added Tax (VAT) rate to 21% as of January 2018, with the goal of reducing its public debt.
Industries steelmaking, agricultural processing, consumer goods, tourism
Currency Name and Code Euro (EUR)
Export Partners Switzerland 83.9%, Italy 6.1%, Bosnia and Herzegovina 1.3%
Import Partners Greece 10.2%, Italy 10.2%, Germany 9.6%, Bosnia and Herzegovina 9.2%

Montenegro News and Current Events

What current events are happening in Montenegro?
Source: Google News

Montenegro Travel Information

What makes Montenegro a unique country to travel to?

Country Description

Montenegro is a small country in the Western Balkans that has experienced significant political and economic changes over the past two decades. It is a parliamentary democracy aspiring to Euro-Atlantic integration via membership in the European Union (EU) and NATO. There are many tourist facilities in Montenegro, but they vary in quality and some may not be up to Western standards. Hotel accommodations are plentiful on the coast and in Podgorica, the capital, but limited in smaller towns, especially in the North. English usage is limited except for Montenegro’s main tourist centers and the capital.


Street crime in Podgorica is at a level to be expected for a small European city with fewer than 200,000 people. Residential break-ins present the greatest security concern for U.S. citizens in Montenegro; however, the frequency of these crimes is still relatively low. Violent crime is infrequent. Police have a limited ability to provide services in English.

Cases of credit card fraud and theft at ATMs are minimal in the winter months, but there is a significant increase in theft at ATMs during the tourist season between May and September. Visitors should ensure that they protect their PINs at all times when using ATMs, and monitor card activity.

Don’t buy counterfeit or pirated goods, even if they are widely available. Not only are the bootlegs illegal to bring back into the United States, if you purchase them you may also be breaking local law.

Criminal Penalties

While you are traveling in Montenegro, you are subject to its laws even if you are a U.S. citizen. Foreign laws and legal systems can be vastly different than our own. In Montenegro, you may be taken in for questioning if you don’t have your passport with you. In some places, it is illegal to take pictures of certain buildings. Likewise, driving under the influence could land you immediately in jail. There are also some things that might be legal in Montenegro, but still illegal in the United States, and you can be prosecuted under U.S. law if you buy pirated goods. Engaging in sexual conduct with children or using or disseminating child pornography in a foreign country is a crime prosecutable in the United States. If you break local laws in Montenegro, your U.S. passport won’t help you avoid arrest or prosecution. It’s very important to know what’s legal and what’s not wherever you go.

Persons violating Montenegrin laws, even unknowingly, may be expelled, arrested, or imprisoned. Penalties for possessing, using, or trafficking in illegal drugs in Montenegro are severe, and convicted offenders can expect long jail sentences and heavy fines. Carrying of weapons is forbidden. While some countries will automatically notify the nearest U.S. embassy or consulate if a U.S. citizen is detained or arrested in a foreign country, that might not always be the case. To ensure that the United States is aware of your circumstances, request that the police and prison officials notify the nearest U.S. embassy or consulate as soon as you are arrested or detained overseas.

Medical Facilities and Health Information

Although many physicians in Montenegro are highly trained, hospitals and clinics are generally not equipped or maintained to Western standards. Travelers may need to go to privately owned pharmacies in order to obtain medicines and basic medical supplies. Hospitals and private clinics usually require payment in cash for all services. Montenegro has only a small number of ambulances. As a consequence, emergency services are generally responsive in only the most severe cases. Otherwise, people must have their own transportation to hospitals and clinics.

Safety and Security

Demonstrations related to political activities, labor conditions, or sporting events are usually peaceful, though some have exhibited low levels of violence. Non-Montenegrins are rarely the target of violence, but there is always the danger of being in the wrong place at the wrong time. While most Montenegrins are open and hospitable to foreigners, visitors might encounter anti-foreign sentiment.

Montenegrin nightclubs are popular with foreign tourists; patrons should be aware that these establishments can be crowded and may not comply with Western standards for occupancy control and fire safety.

Traffic Safety and Road Conditions

While in Montenegro, you may encounter road conditions and driving styles that differ significantly from those in the United States. Roads in Montenegro are often poorly maintained, especially in rural areas. Dangerous areas for road travel include a road through the Moraca Canyon, north of Podgorica. This twisting, two-lane road is especially overcrowded in the summer, and is the site of frequent rockslides. In the winter, the Moraca Canyon and northern parts of Montenegro are covered with snow, which may slow traffic and make the road hazardous. Roads leading to Montenegro’s coastal areas are in better condition, but are overcrowded during summer season. Drivers should exercise extreme caution, as it is common for Montenegrin drivers to attempt to pass on winding roads and hills. Local drivers can be reckless and aggressive, and accidents are frequent.

The use of seat belts is mandatory for all passengers and cell-phone usage while driving is prohibited. Traffic law requires that vehicle lights must be switched on at all times while driving. Right turns on red lights are strictly forbidden unless a distinct green arrow is seen. At unmarked intersections, the right of way is always given to the vehicle entering from the right. Traffic law changes that took effect in January 2013 require each vehicle to have a reflectivefluorescent vest to be used in the event of an emergency road stop, as well as a European car accident report form. Children under 5 years old must be transported in a safety seat that is attached to a vehicle safety belt. Vehicles must have winter tires and carry snow chains between November 15 and March 30.

Additionally, pedestrians crossing streets in designated crosswalks have the right of way. Drivers must stop to allow these pedestrians to cross, although you will find that many pedestrians cross where there is no crosswalk.

Police in Montenegro will test a driver’s blood alcohol level on site and arrest any driver if the concentration of alcohol in the blood is greater than 0.03 percent, a very strict standard, significantly lower thanthe U.S. limit of 0.08 percent.Roadside assistance is available by dialing 19807, 382 (0)20 234 467 or 382 (0)20 234 999. Other emergency numbers are police: 122; fire department: 123; and ambulance: 124.

Metered taxi service is safe and reasonably priced, although foreigners are sometimes charged higher rates. Although there are some taxi stands in each of the cities, taxis generally do not pick up passengers on the street and must be ordered by phone or SMS. We recommend negotiating a price prior to traveling by taxi between cities, although some taxi companies have a price list of most intercity destinations on a control board.

Travelers in the region may wish to consider the safety of public transportation, including trains, buses, and ferries, in view of aging and poorly maintained equipment.

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