Zimbabwe Government

What is the capital of Zimbabwe?

Country Name Zimbabwe
Full Country Name Republic of Zimbabwe
Former Name Southern Rhodesia, Rhodesia, Zimbabwe-Rhodesia
Etymology- history of name takes its name from the Kingdom of Zimbabwe (13th-15th century) and its capital of Great Zimbabwe, the largest stone structure in pre-colonial southern Africa
Government Type presidential republic
Capital Name Harare
Capital - geographic coordinate 17 49 S, 31 02 E
Capital Time Difference UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Independence 18 April 1980 (from the UK)
National Holiday Independence Day, 18 April (1980)
Constitution history: previous 1965 (at Rhodesian independence), 1979 (Lancaster House Agreement), 1980 (at Zimbabwean independence); latest final draft completed January 2013, approved by referendum 16 March 2013, approved by Parliament 9 May 2013, effective 22 May 2013

amendments: proposed by the Senate or by the National Assembly; passage requires two-thirds majority vote by the membership of both houses of Parliament and assent of the president of the republic; amendments to constitutional chapters on fundamental human rights and freedoms and on agricultural lands also require approval by a majority of votes cast in a referendum; amended many times, last in 2017

Zimbabwe Capital City Map

Source: Google Maps

Zimbabwe Government and Politics

Who is the president of Zimbabwe?

Executive Branch: chief of state: President Emmerson Dambudzo MNANGAGWA (since 4 September 2023); First Vice President Constantino CHIWENGA (since 4 September 2023); Second Vice President Kembo MOHADI (8 September 2023); note - Robert Gabriel MUGABE resigned on 21 November 2017, after ruling for 37 years

head of government: President Emmerson Dambudzo MNANGAGWA (since 4 September 2023); First Vice President Constantino CHIWENGA (since 4 September 2023); Second Vice President Kembo MOHADI (8 September 2023)

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by president, responsible to National Assembly

elections/appointments: each presidential candidate nominated with a nomination paper signed by at least 10 registered voters (at least 1 candidate from each province) and directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (no term limits); election last held on 23 August 2023 (next to be held in 2028); co-vice presidents drawn from party leadership

election results: 2023: Emmerson MNANGAGWA reelected president in first round; percent of vote - Emmerson MNANGAGWA (ZANU-PF) 52.6%, Nelson CHAMISA (MDC-T) 44%, Wilbert MUBAIWA (NPC) 1.2%, other 2.2%

2018: Emmerson MNANGAGWA elected president in first round; percent of vote - Emmerson MNANGAGWA (ZANU-PF) 50.7%, Nelson CHAMISA (MDC-T) 44.4%, Thokozani KHUPE (MDC-N) 0.9%, other 4%
Citizenship Criteria: citizenship by birth: no

citizenship by descent only: the father must be a citizen of Zimbabwe; in the case of a child born out of wedlock, the mother must be a citizen

dual citizenship recognized: no

residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years
Legal System: mixed legal system of English common law, Roman-Dutch civil law, and customary law
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
Legislative Branch: description: bicameral Parliament consists of:

Senate (80 seats; 60 members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies - 6 seats in each of the 10 provinces - by proportional representation vote, 16 indirectly elected by the regional governing councils, 18 reserved for the National Council Chiefs, and 2 reserved for members with disabilities; members serve 5-year terms)

National Assembly (280 seats; 210 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote and 60 seats reserved for women directly elected by proportional representation vote and 10 additional seats reserved for candidates aged between 21 and 35 directly elected by proportional representation, members serve 5-year terms)


Senate - last held for elected member on 23 August 2023 (next to be held in 2028)

National Assembly - last held on 23 August 2023 (next to be held in 2028); note: a by-election was held on 11 November 2023 due to the death of a candidate during the August general election; a special by election was held on 9 December 2023 after nine opposition lawmakers were removed from their seats and disqualified from running again; another by-election was held 3 February 2024 for six open seats

election results:

Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - ZANU-PF 33, CCC- 27, Chiefs 18, people with disabilities 2; composition - men 36, women 35, percentage of women 49.3%

National Assembly - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - ZANU-PF 190, CCC-93; composition - men 192, women 75, percentage women 28.1%; total Parliament percentage women 32.5%
Judicial Branch: highest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of the chief justice and 4 judges); Constitutional Court (consists of the chief and deputy chief justices and 9 judges)

judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judges appointed by the president upon recommendation of the Judicial Service Commission, an independent body consisting of the chief justice, Public Service Commission chairman, attorney general, and 2-3 members appointed by the president; judges normally serve until age 65 but can elect to serve until age 70; Constitutional Court judge appointment NA; judges serve non-renewable 15-year terms

subordinate courts: High Court; Labor Court; Administrative Court; regional magistrate courts; customary law courts; special courts
Regions or States: 8 provinces and 2 cities* with provincial status; Bulawayo*, Harare*, Manicaland, Mashonaland Central, Mashonaland East, Mashonaland West, Masvingo, Matabeleland North, Matabeleland South, Midlands
Political Parties and Leaders: Citizens Coalition for Change (vacant)

Movement for Democratic Change - MDC-T [Douglas MWONZORA]

National People's Congress- NPC- [Wilbert MUBAIWA]

Zimbabwe African National Union-Patriotic Front or ZANU-PF [Emmerson Dambudzo MNANGAGWA]

Zimbabwe African Peoples Union or ZAPU [Michael NKOMO]
International Law Organization Participation: has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt
Diplomatic Representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Tadeous Tafirenyika CHIFAMBA (since 7 July 2021)

chancery: 1608 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20009

telephone: [1] (202) 332-7100

FAX: [1] (202) 483-9326

email address and website:


Diplomatic Representation from US: chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Chargé d'Affaires Elaine M. FRENCH (since August 2022)

embassy: 2 Lorraine Drive, Bluffhill, Harare

mailing address: 2180 Harare Place, Washington DC 20521-2180

telephone: [263] 867-701-1000

FAX: [263] 24-233-4320

email address and website:


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