Where is Uzbekistan located?

What countries border Uzbekistan?

Uzbekistan Weather

What is the current weather in Uzbekistan?

Uzbekistan Facts and Culture

What is Uzbekistan famous for?

  • Cultural Attributes: Uzbekistan has a rich and diverse cultural heritage, influenced by its location along the Silk Road trading route and the... More
  • Family: Many household include more than one generation and it is customary for the youngest son and his wife to live... More
  • Personal Apperance: Western style clothing is worn and by many combined with the traditional Uzbek styles. Traditional clothing for men includes the... More
  • Recreation: Soccer is the most popular sport. Kyrash, a type of wrestling is enjoyed by Uzbek boys. Another sport that is... More
  • Diet: The Uzbek cuisine is a mix of Central Asian, Middle Eastern, and Russian influences, and it reflects the country's long... More
  • Food and Recipes: Every guest takes his turn as toast master. The toast master stands up, his glass of vodka in hand and... More
  • Visiting: Men will always shake hands with other men. Even if you are not introduced to everyone, a simple handshake substitutes... More

Uzbekistan Facts

What is the capital of Uzbekistan?

Capital Tashkent (Toshkent)
Government Type presidential republic; highly authoritarian
Currency Uzbekistan Sum (UZS)
Total Area 172,741 Square Miles
447,400 Square Kilometers
Location Central Asia, north of Turkmenistan, south of Kazakhstan
Language Uzbek 74.3%, Russian 14.2%, Tajik 4.4%, other 7.1%
GDP - real growth rate 6.8%
GDP - per capita (PPP) $6,100.00 (USD)

Uzbekistan Demographics

What is the population of Uzbekistan?

Ethnic Groups Uzbek 80%, Russian 5.5%, Tajik 5%, Kazakh 3%, Karakalpak 2.5%, Tatar 1.5%, other 2.5%
Nationality Noun Uzbekistani
Population 35,498,181
Population Growth Rate 0.94%
Population in Major Urban Areas TASHKENT (capital) 2.227 million
Urban Population 36.200000

Uzbekistan Government

What type of government does Uzbekistan have?

Executive Branch chief of state: President Shavkat MIRZIYOYEV (since 14 December 2016)

head of government: Prime Minister Abdulla ARIPOV (since 14 December 2016)

cabinet: Cabinet of Ministers appointed by the president with most requiring approval of the Senate chamber of the Supreme Assembly (Oliy Majlis)

elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 7-year term (eligible for a second term; previously a 5-year term, extended to 7 years by a 2023 constitutional amendment); election last held on 9 July 2023 (next to be held in 2030); prime minister nominated by majority party in legislature since 2011 but appointed along with the ministers and deputy ministers by the president

election results: 2023: Shavkat MIRZIYOYEV reelected president in snap election; percent of vote - Shavkat MIRZIYOYEV (LDPU) 87.71%, Robaxon Maxmudova (Adolat) 4.47%, Ulugbek Inoyatov (PDP) 4.05%, Abdushukur Xamzayev (Ecological Party) 3.77%

2021: Shavkat MIRZIYOYEV reelected president in first round; percent of vote - Shavkat MIRZIYOYEV (LDPU) 80.3%, Maqsuda VORISOVA (PDP) 6.7%, Alisher QODIROV (National Revival Democratic Party) 5.5%, Narzullo OBLOMURODOV (Ecological Party) 4.1%, Bahrom ABDUHALIMOV (Adolat) 3.4%

2016: Shavkat MIRZIYOYEV elected president in first round; percent of vote - Shavkat MIRZIYOYEV (LDPU) 88.6%, Hotamjon KETMONOV (PDP) 3.7%, Narimon UMAROV (Adolat) 3.5%, Sarvar OTAMURODOV (National Revival Democratic Party) 2.4%, other 1.8%
Suffrage 18 years of age; universal
Citizenship citizenship by birth: no

citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Uzbekistan

dual citizenship recognized: no

residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years
National Holiday Independence Day, 1 September (1991)
Constitution history: several previous; latest adopted 8 December 1992

amendments: proposed by the Supreme Assembly or by referendum; passage requires two-thirds majority vote of both houses of the Assembly or passage in a referendum; amended several times, last in 2023

note: in a public referendum passed in April 2023, among the changes were the extension of the presidential term to 7 years from 5 years, and modifications to the structure and powers of the Supreme Assembly and to the criminal code
Independence 1 September 1991 (from the Soviet Union)

Uzbekistan Video

YouTube: DW Documentary Uzbekistan - The Silk Road by train

CountryReports YouTube Channel:

Join CountryReports YouTube Channel (Click Here)

Uzbekistan Geography

What environmental issues does Uzbekistan have?

Overview Located between the Amu Darya (Oxus) and Syr‑Darya (Jaxarteo) Rivers, Uzbekistan lies at the heart of central Asia. Along its borders are Afghanistan to the south, Turkmenistan to the west and south, Kazakhstan to the north, and Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan to the east. Aside from Liechtenstein, Uzbekistan is the world’s only other doubly landlocked country. Covering an area of 500,000 square kilometers, Uzbekistan is roughly the size of California. Most of the country is desert (the Kyzylkum and the Karakum) or irrigated steppe, but it has rugged mountains in the east (a branch of the Tien Shan range), as well as semi‑arid grassland. Only nine percent of Uzbekistan’s land is arable.
Climate The area has a severe continental climate that is dry and hot in summer and cool and wet in winter. In the long summer, daytime temperatures often reach or surpass 40°C (104°F), but humidity is low. During the short winter, daytime temperatures usually stay above freezing, but can dip well below, and snow is not unusual. Spring and fall are the most comfortable seasons.
Border Countries Afghanistan 137 km, Kazakhstan 2,203 km, Kyrgyzstan 1,099 km, Tajikistan 1,161 km, Turkmenistan 1,621 km
Environment - Current Issues shrinkage of the Aral Sea is resulting in growing concentrations of chemical pesticides and natural salts; these substances are then blown from the increasingly exposed lake bed and contribute to desertification; water pollution from industrial wastes and the heavy use of fertilizers and pesticides is the cause of many human health disorders; increasing soil salination; soil contamination from buried nuclear processing and agricultural chemicals, including DDT
Environment - International Agreements party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Terrain mostly flat-to-rolling sandy desert with dunes; broad, flat intensely irrigated river valleys along the course of Amu Darya, Syr Darya (Sirdaryo), and Zarafshon; Fergana Valley in the east surrounded by mountainous Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan; shrinking Aral Sea.

Uzbekistan Economy

How big is the Uzbekistan economy?

Economic Overview The country's economic growth has been driven primarily by the agriculture sector. Uzbekistan is one of the world's largest producers of cotton, and agriculture accounts for a significant proportion of the country's GDP. In addition to cotton, Uzbekistan also produces a variety of other crops, including wheat, rice, and fruits and vegetables. The country's agricultural sector has undergone significant reforms in recent years, with the government investing in irrigation and mechanization to increase crop yields.

Uzbekistan is also rich in natural resources, particularly oil and gas. The country is home to some of the largest oil and gas reserves in Central Asia, and the energy sector accounts for a significant proportion of the country's GDP. In recent years, the Uzbek government has been working to modernize the country's energy sector and attract foreign investment in the sector.

Another key driver of Uzbekistan's economy is the manufacturing sector. The country has a well-developed manufacturing industry, with a focus on textiles, food processing, and machinery. The government has implemented policies to encourage foreign investment in the manufacturing sector, and as a result, several multinational corporations have established operations in Uzbekistan in recent years.

Uzbekistan's economy faces several challenges, however. One of the key challenges is the lack of economic diversification. The country's economy is heavily dependent on natural resources and agriculture, which leaves it vulnerable to fluctuations in commodity prices. The government has recognized the need for economic diversification and has implemented policies aimed at developing new industries such as tourism and high-tech manufacturing.

Another challenge facing Uzbekistan's economy is the high level of informal employment. A significant proportion of the country's workforce is engaged in informal employment, which means that they do not have access to social security benefits or legal protections. The government has implemented policies aimed at reducing the level of informal employment, including the introduction of a new labor code and measures to improve access to credit for small businesses.
Industries textiles, food processing, machine building, metallurgy, natural gas, chemicals
Currency Name and Code Uzbekistan Sum (UZS)
Export Partners Russia 19.9%, Italy 8.6%, Tajikistan 7.7%, South Korea 5.6%, Kazakhstan 5.1%, US 4.7%, Turkey 4.4%, Japan 4.3%
Import Partners Russia 24%, Germany 10.8%, South Korea 10%, US 7.3%, China 5.5%, Kazakhstan 5.3%, Turkey 4.9%

Uzbekistan News and Current Events

What current events are happening in Uzbekistan?
Source: Google News

Uzbekistan Travel Information

What makes Uzbekistan a unique country to travel to?

Country Description

Since becoming an independent republic in 1991, Uzbekistan has been undergoing significant economic and social change. Much of the country, particularly areas outside of Tashkent and the major tourist destinations of Samarkand, Bukhara and Khiva, is remote and difficult to access. Tourist facilities in these areas are typically below international standards, and many goods and services remain difficult to find on a regular basis.


Uzbekistan’s rate of violent crime, including against foreigners, has increased in recent years. In urban areas, travelers are urged to take the same precautions against crime that they would take in a large U.S. city. If you are traveling at night, try to stay in well-lighted areas, please travel in groups, maintain a low profile, and do not display large amounts of cash. Beware of pickpockets in public places, such as tourist destinations and local markets.

Although using private cars as taxicabs is a common practice in Uzbekistan, U.S. citizens, especially women, should not consider this a safe practice. U.S. citizens are encouraged to use clearly marked taxicabs, such as those at hotels and should avoid riding in taxis alone.

Don’t buy counterfeit and pirated goods, even if they are widely available. Not only are they illegal in the United States, if you purchase them you may also be breaking local law.

Criminal Penalties

While you are traveling in Uzbekistan, you are subject to its laws. Foreign laws and legal systems can be vastly different from our own. In some places you may be taken in for questioning if you don’t have your passport with you. In some places, it is illegal to take pictures of certain buildings. In some places driving under the influence could land you immediately in jail. These criminal penalties will vary from country to country. There are also some things that might be legal in the country you visit, but still illegal in the United States, and you can be prosecuted under U.S. law if you buy pirated goods. Engaging in sexual conduct with children or disseminating child pornography in a foreign country is a crime prosecutable in the United States. If you break local laws in Uzbekistan, your U.S. passport won’t help you avoid arrest or prosecution. It’s very important to know what’s legal and what’s not where you are going. Persons violating Uzbekistan laws, even unknowingly, may be expelled, arrested, or imprisoned. Penalties for possessing, using, or trafficking in illegal drugs in Uzbekistan are severe, and convicted offenders can expect long jail sentences and heavy fines.

While some countries will automatically notify the nearest U.S. embassy or consulate if a U.S. citizen is detained or arrested in a foreign country, that might not always be the case. To ensure that the United States is aware of your circumstances, request that the police and prison officials notify the nearest U.S. embassy or consulate as soon as you are arrested or detained in Uzbekistan.

Taking photographs of military or security installations or other locations of strategic significance (ministries, border and other checkpoints, bridges, tunnels, reservoirs, mountain passes, subway system, etc.) is prohibited in Uzbekistan. Uzbek authorities enforce these regulations quite strictly. Obey all signs restricting photography and be mindful that the absence of such a sign may not mean that you can take a picture.

Medical Facilities and Health Information

Medical care in Uzbekistan is below Western standards, with severe shortages of basic medical supplies, including disposable needles, anesthetics, and antibiotics. A large percentage of medication sold in local pharmacies is known to be counterfeit. Elderly travelers and those with pre-existing health problems may be at particular risk due to inadequate medical facilities. Most resident U.S. citizens travel to North America or Western Europe for their medical needs. The Consular Section of the U.S. Embassy maintains a Medical Contacts List on the Embassy website. Travelers are advised to drink only boiled water, peel all fruits and vegetables, and avoid undercooked meat. Due to inadequate sanitation conditions, travelers should avoid eating unpasteurized dairy products and most food sold in the streets.

Tuberculosis is an increasingly serious health concern in Uzbekistan.

Safety and Security

The Department of State advises U.S. citizens that the potential for a terrorist attack or localized civil disturbance still exists in Uzbekistan. Supporters of terrorist groups such as the Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan, al-Qaida, the Islamic Jihad Union, and the Eastern Turkistan Islamic Movement are active in the Central Asian region. Members of these groups have expressed anti-U.S. sentiments and have attacked U.S. government interests in the past. They may attempt to target U.S. government or private U.S. citizen interests in Uzbekistan. In the past, these groups have conducted kidnappings, assassinations, and suicide bombings.

Uzbek authorities maintain a high level of alert and aggressive security measures to thwart terrorist attacks. High security at official facilities may lead terrorists and their sympathizers to seek softer targets. These may include facilities where U.S. citizens and other foreigners congregate or visit, such as residential areas, clubs, restaurants, places of worship, schools, hotels, outdoor recreation events, and resorts. The U.S. Embassy in Tashkent continues to employ heightened security precautions. U.S. citizens should report any unusual activity to local authorities and then inform the Embassy.

Depending upon security conditions, travelers may experience restricted personal movement, including the closing of roads to traffic in addition to frequent document, vehicle, and personal identification checks. The Uzbek government has intermittently restricted travel to certain parts of the country in response to security concerns.

Traffic Safety and Road Conditions

While in a foreign country, U.S. citizens may encounter road conditions that differ significantly from those in the United States. Uzbekistan has a developed but inconsistently maintained traffic infrastructure. Although main roads in central Tashkent are relatively well maintained, many secondary roads inside and outside Tashkent, and particularly those in the Tien Shan Mountains, are in poor condition and may be passable only by four-wheel-drive vehicles. Driving at night can be quite dangerous because only the main roads in Tashkent and a few other major cities have streetlights; rural roads and highways generally are not lit. Visitors are strongly urged to avoid driving at night outside Tashkent. The gasoline supply can be sporadic; therefore, travelers should expect occasional difficulty finding gasoline, particularly outside Tashkent.

Livestock, as well as farm equipment and carts drawn by animals that lack lights or reflectors, are found on both urban and rural roads at any hour. Local drivers are not familiar with safe driving techniques. Pedestrians in cities and rural areas cross streets unexpectedly and often without looking for oncoming traffic. Uzbekistan has a large road police force, which frequently stops drivers for minor infractions or simple document checks. There have been reports of harassment of foreign drivers by the road police, with reported minor police corruption in the form of solicitation of bribes.

Uzbekistan has a “zero tolerance” policy for driving under the influence of alcohol.

All Countries
Afghanistan Akrotiri Albania Algeria American Samoa Andorra Angola Anguilla Antarctica Antigua and Barbuda Argentina Armenia Aruba Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bahamas Bahrain Bangladesh Barbados Belarus Belgium Belize Benin Bermuda Bhutan Bolivia Bosnia and Herzegovina Botswana Brazil British Indian Ocean Territory British Virgin Islands Brunei Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burma Burundi Cabo Verde Cambodia Cameroon Canada Cayman Islands Central African Republic Chad Chile China Christmas Island Clipperton Island Cocos (Keeling) Islands Colombia Comoros Congo, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Republic of the Cook Islands Coral Sea Islands Costa Rica Cote d’Ivoire Croatia Cuba Curacao Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Dhekelia Djibouti Dominica Dominican Republic Ecuador Egypt El Salvador Equatorial Guinea Eritrea Estonia Eswatini Ethiopia Falkland Islands Faroe Islands Fiji Finland France French Guiana French Polynesia Gabon Gambia, The Gaza Strip Georgia Germany Ghana Gibraltar Greece Greenland Grenada Guadeloupe Guam Guatemala Guernsey Guinea Guinea-Bissau Guyana Haiti Holy See Honduras Hong Kong Hungary Iceland India Indonesia Iran Iraq Ireland Isle of Man Israel Italy Jamaica Jan Mayen Japan Jersey Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya Kiribati Korea, North Korea, South Kosovo Kuwait Kyrgyzstan Laos Latvia Lebanon Lesotho Liberia Libya Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Macau Madagascar Malawi Malaysia Maldives Mali Malta Marshall Islands Martinique Mauritania Mauritius Mayotte Mexico Micronesia Moldova Monaco Mongolia Montenegro Montserrat Morocco Mozambique Namibia Nauru Nepal Netherlands New Caledonia New Zealand Nicaragua Niger Nigeria Niue Norfolk Island North Macedonia Northern Mariana Islands Norway Oman Pakistan Palau Panama Papua New Guinea Paraguay Peru Philippines Pitcairn Islands Poland Portugal Puerto Rico Qatar Reunion Romania Russia Rwanda Saint Helena, Ascension, and Tristan da Cunha Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint Lucia Saint Pierre and Miquelon Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Samoa San Marino Sao Tome and Principe Saudi Arabia Senegal Serbia Seychelles Sierra Leone Singapore Slovakia Slovenia Solomon Islands Somalia South Africa Spain Sri Lanka Sudan Sudan, South Suriname Svalbard Sweden Switzerland Syria Taiwan Tajikistan Tanzania Thailand Timor-Leste Togo Tokelau Tonga Trinidad and Tobago Tunisia Turkey Turkmenistan Turks and Caicos Islands Tuvalu Uganda Ukraine United Arab Emirates United Kingdom United States (US) Uruguay Uzbekistan Vanuatu Venezuela Vietnam Virgin Islands Wake Island Wallis and Futuna West Bank Western Sahara World Yemen Zambia Zimbabwe