Turkey Demographics

What is the population of Turkey?

Population 82,017,514
Population Growth Rate 1.16%
Urban Population 71.5%
Population in Major Urban Areas Istanbul 11.253 million; ANKARA (capital) 4.194 million; Izmir 2.927 million; Bursa 1.713 million; Adana 1.468 million; Gaziantep 1.198 million
Nationality Noun Turk(s)
Nationality Adjective Turkish
Ethnic Groups Turkish 80%, Kurdish 20%
Languages Spoken Turkish (official), Kurdish, Arabic, Armenian, Greek
Language Note Turkish is the official language of the country. Some people of Kurdish origin speak Kurdish. A small number of people also speak Arabic. English, German and French are spoken as the second language in cities and more often German in small towns.

Turkey Health Information

What are the health conditions in Turkey?

Contraceptive Prevalence Rate - female 15-49 73%
Death Rate - deaths/1,000 population 6.11
Drinking Water Source - percent of rural population improved 98.8%
Drinking Water Source - percent of total population unimproved 0.3%
Drinking Water Source - percent of urban population improved 100%
Health Expenditures - percent of GDP 6.7%
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate 0.07%
HIV/Aids Deaths 150
HIV/AIDS Prevalence - note no country specific models provided
Hospital Bed Density - beds/1,000 population 2.5
Infant Mortality Rate - female deaths/1,000 live births 21.12
Infant Mortality Rate - male deaths/1,000 live births 23.29
Infant Mortality Rate - total deaths/1,000 live births 22.23
Maternal Mortality Rate - deaths/100,000 live births 20
Mean Age for Mother's First Birth 22.9
Obesity - adult prevalence rate 27.8%
People Living with HIV/AIDS 4,600
Physicians Density - physicians/1,000 population 1.71
Sanitation Facility Access - percent of total population unimproved 8.8%
Sanitation Facility Access - percent of urban population improved 97.2%
Sanitation Facility Access - percent of rural population improved 75.5%
Total Fertility Rate - children born/woman 2.1
Underweight - percent of children under five years 3.5%

Turkey Life Expectancy

How long do people live in Turkey?

Life Expectancy at Birth 73 Years
Life Expectancy at Birth - female 75 Years
Life Expectancy at Birth - male 71 Years
Median Age 29 Years
Median Age - female 29 Years
Median Age - male 28 Years

Turkey Infant Mortality - per 1,000 live births

Turkey median age, birth rate and death rates

Birth Rate - births/1,000 population 17
Death Rate - deaths/1,000 population 6.11
Median Age 29 Years
Median Age - female 29 Years
Median Age - male 28 Years
Net Migration Rate - migrant(s)/1,000 population .48
Population Growth Rate 1.16%
Sex Ratio 0-14 Years - male/female 1.05
Sex Ratio 15-24 Years - male/female 1.04
Sex Ratio 25-54 Years - male/female 1.02
Sex Ratio 55-64 Years - male/female 1.02
Sex Ratio at Birth - male/female 1.05
Sex Ratio of Total Population - male/female 1.02
Sex Ratio Over 64 Years - male/female .84

Turkey Medical Information

What are the health conditions in Turkey?

Medical Facilities and Health Information

The care provided in Turkish hospitals varies greatly. New private hospitals in Ankara, Antalya, Izmir, and Istanbul have modern facilities and equipment, numerous U.S.-trained specialists, and international accreditation. However, some still may be unable to treat certain serious conditions. While the State Department prefers medical evacuation for its personnel who will be giving birth, there are private hospitals in Ankara and Istanbul that meet Western standards of obstetric care. Pregnant women should consult the Turkish Airlines website for more detailed and updated information regarding travel restrictions.

Those planning prolonged stays in Turkey should bring or secure a supply of necessary medications (e.g., heart medications, birth control pills). Certain medications are difficult to obtain in Turkey. Nursing care and diagnostic testing (including mammograms) meet U.S. standards at specific institutions in the larger cities. Unlike in Ankara, Istanbul, Izmir, and Adana, health care standards are lower in small cities in Turkey.

You should drink only bottled water or water that has been filtered and boiled. Bottled beverages are safe to drink. Most local dairy products, including milk, yogurt, and cheese, are safe to consume. Take care when buying perishable products to be sure vendors use adequate refrigeration. Wash vegetables and fruits carefully and cook meat thoroughly before eating it.

H1N1 and Other Influenza: The U.S. Government remains concerned about the possibility of a severe influenza pandemic resulting from changes in the 2009-H1N1 virus or the emergence of a newer influenza virus that may affect U.S. citizens abroad. Both H1N1 and H5N1 (avian influenza), have been reported in Turkey. Avoid poultry farms and contact with animals in live food markets. The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services has developed plans for individuals and groups to protect themselves against infection during a pandemic. They include simple techniques such as washing your hands, practicing cough etiquette, staying home when you or family members are sick, limiting contact with others, and avoiding public gathering places.

Turkey Education

What is school like in Turkey?

Education Expenditures - percent of GDP 2.9%
Literacy - female 78.7%
Literacy - male 94.3%
Literacy - total population 87.4%
Literacy Definition age 15 and over can read and write
School Life Expectancy - female 14 Years
School Life Expectancy - male 15 Years
Total School Life Expectancy - (primary to tertiary) 14 Years

Turkey Literacy

Can people in Turkey read?

Literacy - female 78.7%
Literacy - male 94.3%
Literacy - total population 87.4%
Literacy Definition age 15 and over can read and write
Predominant Language Turkish (official), Kurdish, Arabic, Armenian, Greek

Turkey Crime

Is Turkey a safe place to visit?

Crime Information

The rate of street crime remains relatively low in Turkey. In Istanbul, petty street crime is most common in tourist areas such as Taksim Square, Sultanahmet, and in the areas around the Grand Bazaar and Spice (Egyptian) Bazaar. Carry only what you need when in these areas. You should carry a copy of your passport and visa with you and leave your U.S. passport in your hotel safe.

As in other large metropolitan areas throughout the world, common street crimes include pick pocketing, purse snatching, and mugging. Often the crime is preceded by some sort of diversion such as an argument, a fight, or someone bumping into you. Residential crime is an issue in major cities, with criminals targeting ground floor apartments for theft. Do not be complacent regarding your personal safety. You should use the same precautions you would in the United States.

The Embassy and consulates have received reports of crimes against women. In January 2013, a U.S. citizen female tourist traveling alone was murdered in Istanbul. Female travelers are urged to exercise caution and use common sense, especially when alone. Female travelers should request a female attendant in the "mixed" Turkish baths (hamams). Incidents involving the use of "date rape" drugs (Nembutal and Benzodiazepine) have been reported.

Do not buy counterfeit or pirated goods, even if they are widely available. Not only are bootleg copies of copyrighted goods illegal to bring back into the United States, if you purchase them, you are breaking local law.

U.S. citizen tourists sometimes report a particular kind of confidence game in Turkey, mainly in Istanbul, that targets lone male tourists. The con induces unsuspecting men to patronize certain eating and drinking establishments where the costs for food and beverages are hyper-inflated. Generally, an inside person associated with one of these establishments, usually another unassuming male, will befriend a target and invite him to visit a bar that he knows. Once at the bar, drinks are brought to the table and the target is usually joined by one or more females and others who work there. The target is unaware of the costs of food and drinks that are either ordered or simply delivered to the table until after the bill arrives. Since the prices are not clearly marked in menus, patrons generally have little recourse but to pay the final bill, no matter how outrageously high the total is. People who refuse to pay are intimidated to do so, and sometimes forcibly taken to an ATM to withdraw money. When dining out, patronize well established restaurants, and if you are off the beaten path, always ask to see a menu before ordering anything.

The Embassy and consulates have received e-mail complaints from U.S. citizens about online scams – ranging from fraudulent awarding of diversity ("lottery") visas to fronts for Internet dating and romances to scams about purchasing pets – and were subsequently defrauded of hundreds or thousands of dollars. Be very careful about suspicious requests for deposits and various types of registration fees. The State Department’s International Scams webpage has a section detailing some of the more common scams. The State Department has also published an informational brochure about scams. You should also exercise due diligence when purchasing real estate in Turkey. For more information please visit the Turkish Ministry of Foreign Affairs Guidance for Foreigners website. Please carefully research the background of any property in order to ensure that everything is legal.

The local equivalent of the "911" emergency line (for police, fire, or ambulance) in Turkey is155. The emergency number for ambulance assistance only is 112.

Turkey Penalties for Crime

Criminal Penalties

While traveling in Turkey, you are subject to Turkish laws. Foreign laws and legal systems differ from ours. Criminal penalties vary from country to country. There are also some things that, while legal in the country you visit, are illegal in the United States; for instance, you can be prosecuted under U.S. law if you buy pirated goods. Engaging in sexual conduct with children or possessing or disseminating child pornography in a foreign country is a crime that is prosecutable in the United States.

Drug Offenses: Turkish law enforcement agencies are very aggressive in combating illegal drugs. The penalties for violating Turkish laws, even unknowingly, can be severe. Penalties for possession, use, or trafficking of illegal drugs in Turkey are particularly strict, and convicted offenders will receive heavy fines and jail sentences of between four and twenty years in some cases.

Insulting the State: It is illegal, under Turkish law, to show disrespect to the name or image of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, founder of the modern Turkish Republic. It is also illegal to insult the Turkish Government, flag, or security forces.

Religious Proselytizing: Although there is no specific law against religious proselytizing, some activities can lead to your arrest under laws that regulate expression, educational institutions, and religious meetings. The State Department’s Annual Report on International Religious Freedom contains additional information on religious freedom in Turkey.

Cultural Artifacts: Turkish law has a broad definition of "antiquities" and makes it a crime to remove any from the country. Offenders are prosecuted. All historic sites, and everything in them, on the grounds, or in the water, are the property of the Turkish Government. If you buy antiquities, use only authorized dealers and obtain museum certificate for each item they are authorized to sell. At departure, you may be asked to present a receipt and the certificate. Failure to have them can result in your arrest and jail time. Contact the Embassy of Turkey in Washington or one of Turkey's consulates in the United States for specific information regarding customs requirements.

Dual Citizenship: U.S.-Turkish dual nationals may be subject to laws that impose special obligations on Turkish citizens. Male dual citizens over the age of 18 may be subject to Turkish conscription and compulsory military service. Those with questions are strongly advised to consult with officials at Turkish embassies or consulatesbefore entering Turkey. Turkish law does not allow for U.S. officials to visit or provide consular assistance to U.S.-Turkish dual nationals arrested in Turkey. Please see our information on dual nationality.

Arrest notifications in Turkey: Based on the Vienna Convention on Consular Relations, bilateral agreements with certain countries, and customary international law, if you are arrested in Turkey, you have the option to request that the police, prison officials, or other authorities alert the nearest U.S. embassy or consulate of your arrest, and to have communications from you forwarded to the nearest U.S. embassy or consulate.

JUDICIAL ASSISTANCE: Judicial assistance between the United States and Turkey is governed by the Vienna Convention on Consular Relations.

Turkey Population Comparison

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