Turkey Geography

What is the terrain and geography like in Turkey?

Overview:

Aside from Russia, Turkey is the largest country in Europe. Its 296,185 square miles lie between the Aegean, Black, and Mediterranean Seas. It stretches about 950 miles from west to east and 400 miles from north to south. Thrace, the European portion of Turkey, ends at the Bosphorus Strait where Anatolia and Asia begin. Anatolia is a high plateau bounded by the Pontic Mountains on the north, the Taurus Mountains on the south, and stretches to the peak of Mount Ararat (nearly 17,000 feet high) among the Caucasus Mountains in the east. Mountain ranges give way to narrow coastal plains on the northeast and south, and to treeless valleys between rolling hills and low mountains in the center.

Geography - note:

strategic location controlling the Turkish Straits (Bosporus, Sea of Marmara, Dardanelles) that link Black and Aegean Seas; Mount Ararat, the legendary landing place of Noah's ark, is in the far eastern portion of the country

Climate:

The climate varies a great deal across Turkey. Precipitation is highest on the Black Sea, where, in Rize, an average of 98 inches of rain falls each year. Ankara averages only 14 inches (chiefly accumulating from November to May), and Antalya on the south coast gets about 28 inches. Istanbul has an average of 25 inches of annual precipitation. The plateau region has hot with very dry summers and temperatures in July that range from the mid-70s to the low 90s. The skies are almost always clear and cloudless during the day and nights are cool. Winters in this region are generally windy and cold (the mean temperature for January is 30°F). Around the Sea of Marmara and Istanbul, the average temperature is 83°F in July and 35°F in January. The south coast has long summers that are often hot and humid both night and day in the midsummer months (the average temperature in mid-August is 94°F), but it is very pleasant in spring and autumn. Winters in the south are usually fairly mild. The north coast Black Sea region tends to have cooler summers and warmer winters than the other coastal areas.

Turkey Use of Natural Resources

Turkey Environment

Climate:

The climate varies a great deal across Turkey. Precipitation is highest on the Black Sea, where, in Rize, an average of 98 inches of rain falls each year. Ankara averages only 14 inches (chiefly accumulating from November to May), and Antalya on the south coast gets about 28 inches. Istanbul has an average of 25 inches of annual precipitation. The plateau region has hot with very dry summers and temperatures in July that range from the mid-70s to the low 90s. The skies are almost always clear and cloudless during the day and nights are cool. Winters in this region are generally windy and cold (the mean temperature for January is 30°F). Around the Sea of Marmara and Istanbul, the average temperature is 83°F in July and 35°F in January. The south coast has long summers that are often hot and humid both night and day in the midsummer months (the average temperature in mid-August is 94°F), but it is very pleasant in spring and autumn. Winters in the south are usually fairly mild. The north coast Black Sea region tends to have cooler summers and warmer winters than the other coastal areas.

Terrain:

high central plateau (Anatolia); narrow coastal plain; several mountain ranges

Natural Resources:

coal, iron ore, copper, chromium, antimony, mercury, gold, barite, borate, celestite (strontium), emery, feldspar, limestone, magnesite, marble, perlite, pumice, pyrites (sulfur), clay, arable land, hydropower

Natural Hazards:

very severe earthquakes, especially in northern Turkey, along an arc extending from the Sea of Marmara to Lake Van

Irrigated Land:

20,618 Square Miles
53,400 Square Kilometers

Environmental Issues:

water pollution from dumping of chemicals and detergents; air pollution, particularly in urban areas; deforestation; concern for oil spills from increasing Bosporus ship traffic

Environment - International Agreements:

party to: Air Pollution, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: Environmental Modification

Turkey Geography

Geographic Location Middle East
Total Area 302,533 Square Miles
783,562 Square Kilometers
Land Area 297,155 Square Miles
769,632 Square Kilometers
Water Area 5,378 Square Miles
13,930 Square Kilometers
Land Boundaries 1,645 Miles
2,648 Kilometers
Irrigated Land 20,618 Square Miles
53,400 Square Kilometers
Border Countries Armenia 268 km, Azerbaijan 9 km, Bulgaria 240 km, Georgia 252 km, Greece 206 km, Iran 499 km, Iraq 352 km, Syria 822 km
Coastline 4,474 Miles
7,200 Kilometers
Geographic Coordinates 39 00 N, 35 00 E
Terrain high central plateau (Anatolia); narrow coastal plain; several mountain ranges
Highest Point 5,166 Meters
Highest Point Location Mount Ararat 5,166 m
Lowest Point Location Mediterranean Sea 0 m
Natural Resources coal, iron ore, copper, chromium, antimony, mercury, gold, barite, borate, celestite (strontium), emery, feldspar, limestone, magnesite, marble, perlite, pumice, pyrites (sulfur), clay, arable land, hydropower
Time Zone UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Daylight saving time +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
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