Turkey Economy

Is Turkey a rich country?

Turkey's largely free-market economy is driven by its industry and, increasingly, service sectors, although its traditional agriculture sector still accounts for about 25% of employment. The automotive, petrochemical, and electronics industries have risen in importance and surpassed the traditional textiles and clothing sectors within Turkey's export mix. However, the recent period of political stability and economic dynamism has given way to domestic uncertainty and security concerns, which are generating financial market volatility and weighing on Turkey’s economic outlook.

Current government policies emphasize populist spending measures and credit breaks, while implementation of structural economic reforms has slowed. The government is playing a more active role in some strategic sectors and has used economic institutions and regulators to target political opponents, undermining private sector confidence in the judicial system. Between July 2016 and March 2017, three credit ratings agencies downgraded Turkey’s sovereign credit ratings, citing concerns about the rule of law and the pace of economic reforms.

Turkey remains highly dependent on imported oil and gas but is pursuing energy relationships with a broader set of international partners and taking steps to increase use of domestic energy sources including renewables, nuclear, and coal. The joint Turkish-Azerbaijani Trans-Anatolian Natural Gas Pipeline is moving forward to increase transport of Caspian gas to Turkey and Europe, and when completed will help diversify Turkey's sources of imported gas.

After Turkey experienced a severe financial crisis in 2001, Ankara adopted financial and fiscal reforms as part of an IMF program. The reforms strengthened the country's economic fundamentals and ushered in an era of strong growth, averaging more than 6% annually until 2008. An aggressive privatization program also reduced state involvement in basic industry, banking, transport, power generation, and communication. Global economic conditions and tighter fiscal policy caused GDP to contract in 2009, but Turkey's well-regulated financial markets and banking system helped the country weather the global financial crisis, and GDP growth rebounded to around 9% in 2010 and 2011, as exports and investment recovered following the crisis.

The growth of Turkish GDP since 2016 has revealed the persistent underlying imbalances in the Turkish economy. In particular, Turkey’s large current account deficit means it must rely on external investment inflows to finance growth, leaving the economy vulnerable to destabilizing shifts in investor confidence. Other troublesome trends include rising unemployment and inflation, which increased in 2017, given the Turkish lira’s continuing depreciation against the dollar. Although government debt remains low at about 30% of GDP, bank and corporate borrowing has almost tripled as a percent of GDP during the past decade, outpacing its emerging-market peers and prompting investor concerns about its long-term sustainability.

Turkey Economy Data

What is the GDP of Turkey?

GDP - Gross Domestic Product (PPP) $1,515,000,000,000 (USD)
GDP - official exchange rate $722,200,000,000 (USD)
GDP - real growth rate 3%
GDP Per Capita $20,500.00 (USD)
GDP by Sector- agriculture 8.1%
GDP by Sector- Industry 27.7%
GDP by Sector- services 64.2%
GDP - composition, by end use household consumption: 68.2%

government consumption: 15.4%

investment in fixed capital: 19.8%

investment in inventories: 0%

exports of goods and services: 28.7%

imports of goods and services: -32.1%
Population Below Poverty Line 17.11%
Inflation Rate 8.7%
Labor Force 24,730,000
Labor Force By Occupation- agriculture 25.5%
Labor Force By Occupation- industry 26.2%
Labor Force By Occupation- services 48.4%
Unemployment Rate 12.4%
Unemployment - note underemployment amounted to 4% in 2008
Fiscal Year calendar year
Annual Budget $159,400,000,000 (USD)
Budget Surplus or Deficit - percent of GDP -2.1%
Public Debt (% of GDP) 67.5%
Taxes and other revenues - percent of GDP 23.2%
Major Industries textiles, food processing, autos, mining (coal, chromite, copper, boron), steel, petroleum, construction, lumber, paper
Industrial Growth Rate 6%
Agriculture Products tobacco, cotton, grain, olives, sugar beets, pulse, citrus; livestock
Currency Code Turkish lira (TRL)
Child Labor - % of children ages 5-14 3%
Child Labor - # of children ages 5-14 321,866
Child Labor - note note: data represents children ages 6-14
Commercial Bank Prime Lending Rate 18.5%

Labor Force by Occupation- As reported by Turkey

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