Spain Government

What is the capital of Spain?

Country Name Spain
Full Country Name Kingdom of Spain
Local - Long Reino de Espana
Local - Short Espana
Etymology- history of name derivation of the name "Espana" is uncertain, but may come from the Phoenician term "span," related to the word "spy," meaning "to forge metals," so, "i-spn-ya" would mean "place where metals are forged"; the ancient Phoenicians long exploited the Iberian Peninsula for its mineral wealth
Government Type parliamentary constitutional monarchy
Capital Name Madrid
Capital - geographic coordinate 40 24 N, 3 41 W
Capital Time Difference UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

note: Spain has two time zones including the Canary Islands
Daylight Savings Time +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
Independence 1492; the Iberian peninsula was characterized by a variety of independent kingdoms prior to the Muslim occupation that began in the early 8th century A.D. and lasted nearly seven centuries; the small Christian redoubts of the north began the reconquest almost immediately, culminating in the seizure of Granada in 1492; this event completed the unification of several kingdoms and is traditionally considered the forging of present-day Spain
National Holiday National Day, 12 October (1492); year when Columbus first set foot in the Americas
Constitution history: previous 1812; latest approved by the General Courts 31 October 1978, passed by referendum 6 December 1978, signed by the king 27 December 1978, effective 29 December 1978

amendments: proposed by the government, by the General Courts (the Congress or the Senate), or by the self-governing communities submitted through the government; passage requires three-fifths majority vote by both houses and passage by referendum if required by one-tenth of the members of either house within 15 days of passage; proposals disapproved by both houses are submitted to a joint committee, which submits an agreed upon text for another vote; passage requires two-thirds vote in Congress and simple majority vote in the Senate; amended 1992, 2007, 2011

Spain Capital City Map

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Spain Government and Politics

Who is the president of Spain?

Executive Branch: chief of state: King FELIPE VI (since 19 June 2014); Heir Apparent Princess LEONOR, Princess of Asturias (daughter of the monarch, born 31 October 2005)

head of government: President of the Government (Prime Minister-equivalent) Pedro SANCHEZ Perez-Castejon (since 2 June 2018); Vice President (and Minister of the President's Office) Maria del Carmen CALVO Poyato (since 7 June 2018)

cabinet: Council of Ministers designated by the president

elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; following legislative elections, the monarch usually proposes as president the leader of the party or coalition with the largest majority of seats, who is then indirectly elected by the Congress of Deputies; election last held on 10 November 2019 (next to be held November 2023); vice president and Council of Ministers appointed by the president

election results: percent of National Assembly vote - NA

note: there is also a Council of State that is the supreme consultative organ of the government, but its recommendations are non-binding
Citizenship Criteria: citizenship by birth: no

citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Spain

dual citizenship recognized: only with select Latin American countries

residency requirement for naturalization: 10 years for persons with no ties to Spain
Legal System: civil law system with regional variations
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
Legislative Branch: description: bicameral General Courts or Las Cortes Generales consists of:

Senate or Senado (266 seats; 208 members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by simple majority vote and 58 members indirectly elected by the legislatures of the autonomous communities; members serve 4-year terms)

Congress of Deputies or Congreso de los Diputados (350 seats; 348 members directly elected in 50 multi-seat constituencies by closed-list proportional representation vote, with a 3% threshold needed to gain a seat, and 2 directly elected from the North African Ceuta and Melilla enclaves by simple majority vote; members serve 4-year terms or until the government is dissolved)

elections:

Senate - last held on 10 November 2019 (next to be held no later than November 2023)

Congress of Deputies - last held on 10 November 2019 (next to be held no later than November 2023)

election results:

Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PSOE 113, PP 97, ERC 15, EAJ/PNV 10, C's 9, other 22; composition - men 163, women 103; percent of women 39%

Congress of Deputies - percent of vote by party - PSOE 28.7%, PP 20.8%,Vox 15.1%, Unidos Podemos 12.8%, C's 6.8%, ERC 3.6%, other 12.8%; seats by party - PSOE 120, PP 88, Vox 52, Unidos Podemos 35, C's 10, ERC 13, other 23; composition - men 184, women 166; percent of women 47.4%; note - total General Courts percent of women 43.7%
Judicial Branch: highest court(s): Supreme Court or Tribunal Supremo (consists of the court president and organized into the Civil Room with a president and 9 judges, the Penal Room with a president and 14 judges, the Administrative Room with a president and 32 judges, the Social Room with a president and 12 judges, and the Military Room with a president and 7 judges); Constitutional Court or Tribunal Constitucional de Espana (consists of 12 judges)

judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judges appointed by the monarch from candidates proposed by the General Council of the Judiciary Power, a 20-member governing board chaired by the monarch that includes presidential appointees, and lawyers and jurists confirmed by the National Assembly; judges can serve until age 70; Constitutional Court judges nominated by the National Assembly, executive branch, and the General Council of the Judiciary, and appointed by the monarch for 9-year terms

subordinate courts: National High Court; High Courts of Justice (in each of the autonomous communities); provincial courts; courts of first instance
Regions or States: 17 semi-autonomous communities (comunidades autonomas, singular - comunidad autonoma) and 2 autonomous cities* (ciudades autonomas, singular - ciudad autonoma); Andalucia; Aragon; Asturias; Canarias (Canary Islands); Cantabria; Castilla-La Mancha; Castilla-Leon; Cataluna (Castilian), Catalunya (Catalan), Catalonha (Aranese) [Catalonia]; Ceuta*; Comunidad Valenciana (Castilian), Comunitat Valenciana (Valencian) [Valencian Community]; Extremadura; Galicia; Illes Baleares (Balearic Islands); La Rioja; Madrid; Melilla*; Murcia; Navarra (Castilian), Nafarroa (Basque) [Navarre]; Pais Vasco (Castilian), Euskadi (Basque) [Basque Country]

note: the autonomous cities of Ceuta and Melilla plus three small islands of Islas Chafarinas, Penon de Alhucemas, and Penon de Velez de la Gomera, administered directly by the Spanish central government, are all along the coast of Morocco and are collectively referred to as Places of Sovereignty (Plazas de Soberania)
Political Parties and Leaders: Amaiur [Xabier ERREKONDO] (a separatist political coalition that advocates Basque independence from Spain)

Asturias Forum or FAC [Cristina COTO]

Basque Country Unite (Euskal Herria Bildu) or EH Bildu [Pello URIZAR] (coalition of 4 Basque pro-independence parties)

Basque Nationalist Party or PNV or EAJ [Andoni ORTUZAR]

Canarian Coalition or CC [Claudina MORALES Rodriguez] (coalition of five parties)

Canarian Nationalist Party or PNC [Juan Manuel GARCIA Ramos]

Catalan Agreement of Progress (Entesa Catalonia de Progress) or ECP [Carles BONET i Reves] (Senate coalition of Catalan parties - PSC, ERC, ICV, EUA)

Change or Cambio-Aldaketa

Ciudadamos Party or C's [Albert RIVERA]

Democracy and Freedom or DiL [Francesc HOMS Molist] (2015 merger of Cemocratic Convergence of Catalonia or CDC, Democrats of Catalonia, Reagrupament)

Democratic Union of Catalonia or UDC [Josep Maria PELEGRIA]

Galician Nationalist Bloc or BNG [Ana PONTON Mondelo]

Gomera Socialist Group or ASG

Initiative for Catalonia Greens or ICV [Joan HERRERA i Torres and Dolors CAMATS]

Podemos [Pablo IGLESIAS Turrion]

Popular Party or PP [Mariano RAJOY Brey]

Republican Left of Catalonia or ERC [Oriol JUNQUERAS i Vies]

Spanish Socialist Workers Party or PSOE [interim leader Javier FERNANDEZ]

Union of People of Navarra or UPN [Javier ESPARZA]

Union, Progress and Democracy or UPyD [Gorka MAEIRO]

United Left or IU [Alberto GARZON] (a coalition of parties including the Communist Party of Spain or PCE and other small parties; ran as Popular Unity or UP in 2015 election)

Yes to the Future or Geroa Bai [Koldo MARTINEZ] (a coalition of four Navarran parties)
International Law Organization Participation: accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
International Organization Participation: ADB (nonregional member), AfDB (nonregional member), Arctic Council (observer), Australia Group, BCIE, BIS, CAN (observer), CBSS (observer), CD, CE, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECB, EIB, EITI (implementing country), EMU, ESA, EU, FAO, FATF, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAIA (observer), MIGA, NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE, Pacific Alliance (observer), Paris Club, PCA, PIF (partner), Schengen Convention, SELEC (observer), SICA (observer), UN, UN Security Council (temporary), UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, Union Latina, UNOCI, UNRWA, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
Diplomatic Representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Ramon GIL-CASARES Satrustegui (since 5 June 2012)

chancery: 2375 Pennsylvania Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20037

telephone: [1] (202) 452-0100, 728-2340

FAX: [1] (202) 833-5670

consulate(s) general: Boston, Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New York, San Francisco, San Juan (Puerto Rico)

consulate(s): Kansas City (MO)
Diplomatic Representation from US: chief of mission: Ambassador James COSTOS (since 24 September 2013); note - also accredited to Andorra

embassy: Serrano 75, 28006 Madrid

mailing address: PSC 61, APO AE 09642

telephone: [34] (91) 587-2200

FAX: [34] (91) 587-2303

consulate(s) general: Barcelona
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