Climate ranges from steppes in the south through humid continental in much of European Russia; subarctic in Siberia to tundra climate in the polar north; winters vary from cool along Black Sea coast to frigid in Siberia.
In Moscow Snow begins in October and continues periodically through April, although snowfall in May is not unusual. Annual rainfall averages 21 inches, with the heaviest rains falling between May and October. Prevailing winds are southerly and southwesterly. Due to Moscow's northern location, daylight varies from 7 hours in December to 17 1/2 hours in June. The average temperature in June and July is 66°F, but the summer temperatures frequently reach the low 90s. In the winter the temperature may fall to minus 40°F, but the average December and January temperature is 14°F. Though Moscow's winter air usually is dry, the wind chill factor makes the temperature feel much colder.
The climate in St. Petersburg is milder than in Moscow but is damp and misty. Average temperatures are 64°F in July and 17°F in January. St. Petersburg is famous for its "white nights" which occur in June when the sun shines for nearly 19 hours and sunset only brings semidarkness.
The climate in Vladivostok is milder than in many other Russian cities due to its location on the Pacific Ocean. Winter temperatures range between -68°F and 25°F.