Romania Demographics

What is the population of Romania?

Population 21,302,893
Population Growth Rate -0.27%
Urban Population 52.800000
Population in Major Urban Areas BUCHAREST (capital) 1.937 million
Nationality Noun Romanian(s)
Ethnic Groups Romanian 89.5%, Hungarian 6.6%, Roma 2.5%, Ukrainian 0.3%, German 0.3%, Russian 0.2%, Turkish 0.2%, other 0.4%
Language Note The Germans and Hungarians speak their native ethnic tongues. The Roma speak Romany.

Romania Learning

What is school like in Romania?


In a typical classroom there are desks for every one or two persons, a blackboard, the teacher's desk and some paintings on the walls. There are laboratories equipped with PCs or audiovisuals for the courses that require such stuff. However some schools in the rural areas lack central heating in winter (they still use fire as a heat source) and the bathrooms are impractical. The most serious problem they face in schools is the lack of personal as the pay is extremely low and no one wants to become a teacher any more. For books there are libraries in the school which every child has access to.

Pre-school education is organized in groups for children aged 3-7 (lower, middle, upper, and preparatory groups) in kindergartens with standard, extended, or weekly programs. Primary education (compulsory) includes grades 1-4 and is organized in schools as full-time education.

Lower secondary education (gymnasiums), including grades 5- 9, is compulsory and involves taking a “capacity examination”; pupils who pass this examination get a “certificate of capacity.”

Higher secondary education (high school education) includes grades 10-12, 13 – full-time education and grades 9/10-13 – part-time education and evening classes.

High school education has the following branches: 1. Theoretical; 2. Technology; 3. Vocational. Enrollment is made on the basis of the results in the capacity exam. High school studies end up with a “baccalaureate examination”. After passing this examination, the graduates get the “baccalaureate diploma”.

Vocational education (1-2/3 years), is organized as full-time education or as evening classes in “vocational schools” and apprentice schools with a duration of 2-3 years and 1-3 years respectively. Lower secondary education graduates whether they are “capacity certificate” holders or not, can enroll in the “vocational schools’ and in the apprentice schools. Admission is granted on the basis of practical tests, specific to the selected profession. The courses of “vocational” and 12 apprentice schools end up with a ‘graduation exam” followed by the obtaining of a “graduation diploma” (occupational proficiency certificate)


For a child between 7 and 10 (children start school at seven years old, and by the time they are 10, they finish the first cycle), a normal school day would have 4 or 5 hours starting at 8:00 AM. A class takes 50 minutes, and the break lasts 10 minutes. They have a 20-minute lunch break at noon when the children eat whatever they bought from home.(not every school has a cafeteria, and the ones with a lunchroom are not free but practice a discount policy). Recently, the government introduced a social program in which the state offered the children some bread and milk for lunch. Class sizes range as little as 20, with up to 30 kids in a class.

To School

School transportation depends on the child's age and the size of the town/city they live in. In a small town, for example, in the first years of school, the children would be driven to school by their parents, and when they grow up a bit, they would go on foot alone or in groups. In a big city like Bucharest, they take the bus, the tram, or the subway. School transportation is not taken care of by the state or the school, although some private schools offer this service.

Romania Population Comparison

Romania Health Information

What are the health conditions in Romania?

Life Expectancy at Birth 74.450000
Death Rate - deaths/1,000 population 11.86
Infant Mortality Rate - total deaths/1,000 live births 10.440000
Health Expenditures - percent of GDP 5.9%
Physicians Density - physicians/1,000 population 2.39
Hospital Bed Density - beds/1,000 population 6.3
Drinking Water Source - percent of urban population improved 98.500000
Maternal Mortality Rate - deaths/100,000 live births 27
Mean Age for Mother's First Birth (age 25-49) 26
Contraceptive Prevalence Rate - female 12-49 69.8%
Total Fertility Rate - children born/woman 1.31
Obesity - adult prevalence rate 19.1%
Sanitation Facility Access - percent of urban population improved 87.900000
Underweight - percent of children under five years 3.5%

Romania Life Expectancy

How long do people live in Romania?

Life Expectancy at Birth 74.450000
Median Age 39.400000
Contraceptive Prevalance Rate - female 12-49 69.8%
Infant Mortality Rate 10.440000
Maternal Mortality Rate - deaths/100,000 live births 27
Total Fertility Rate - children born/woman 1.31

Romania median age, birth rate and death rates

Birth Rate - births/1,000 population 9
Median Age 39.400000
Net Migration Rate - migrant(s)/1,000 population -0.25
Population Growth Rate -0.27%
Sex Ratio at Birth - male/female 1.060000
Age Structure 14.400000
Contraceptive Prevalance Rate - female 12-49 69.8%
Infant Mortality Rate 10.440000
Maternal Mortality Rate - deaths/100,000 live births 27
Mother's mean age at first birth 26
Total Fertility Rate - children born/woman 1.31

Romania Medical Information

What are the health conditions in Romania?

Medical Facilities and Health Information

Medical care in Romania is generally not up to Western standards and basic medical supplies are limited, especially outside major cities. Some medical providers that meet Western quality standards are available in Bucharest and other cities but can be difficult to locate. Sanitary conditions in hospitals are variable. Nursing care and assistance from orderlies is often lacking in hospitals. Families often provide basic assistance to hospitalized relatives that U.S. citizens generally expect the hospital to provide. Travelers seeking medical treatment should choose their provider carefully.

Most prescription drugs and over-the-counter medication are available in Romania but may be sold under different brand names. Specific individual drugs may not be available due to differences in laws and regulations. Tuberculosis is an increasingly serious health concern in Romania.

Response times for emergency services vary widely depending on the region of the country and the nature of the emergency. Romania has helicopter services available for the most critical medical evacuation situations.

Health Expenditures - percent of GDP


Hospital Bed Density - beds/1,000 population


Physicians Density - physicians/1,000 population


Romania Education

What is school like in Romania?

Education Expenditures - percent of GDP 4.2%
Literacy - female 97.7%
Literacy - male 99.1%
Literacy - total population 97.3%
Literacy Definition age 15 and over can read and write
Total School Life Expectancy - (primary to tertiary) 14.000000

Romania Literacy

Can people in Romania read?

Literacy - female 97.7%
Literacy - male 99.1%
Literacy - total population 97.3%
Literacy Definition age 15 and over can read and write

Romania Crime

Is Romania a safe place to visit?

Crime Information

While most crimes in Romania are nonviolent, crimes do occur in which people do get hurt and even severely injured, especially at nightclubs and bars. Reports of sexual assault are uncommon; however, to be safe, be vigilant, especially at night and in situations involving alcohol. Although racial prejudice exists in Romania, especially toward those who look like Roma (“gypsies”), hate crimes are rare.

Crimes against tourists, such as robbery, pick pocketing, and confidence schemes remain problematic. Organized groups of thieves and pickpockets, sometimes including minors, operate in train stations and on trains, subways, and buses in major cities. A number of thefts and assaults have occurred on overnight trains, including thefts from passengers in closed compartments. The U.S. Embassy recommends using the highest class available for train travel, and traveling with at least one other person. Avoid leaving your personal belongings unattended; stow them securely out of sight if leaving them in a parked car.

Credit card and internet fraud remain among the most common crimes affecting foreigners in Romania. Romania is largely a "cash-only" economy. While an increasing number of businesses accept credit cards, you may wish to use cash for goods and services rendered due to the risk of credit card fraud. Vendors, including restaurant staff, have been known to misuse credit card information by making illegal purchases on a customer's account. There are an increasing number of Automatic Teller Machines (ATMs) located throughout major cities, and sophisticated identity theft rings target them. Try to use ATMs located inside banks and check for any evidence of tampering before use. Be cautious when using publicly available internet terminals, such as in internet cafes, as sensitive personal information, account passwords, etc. may be compromised.

You should be alert to money exchange schemes targeting travelers. Some of these ploys have become sophisticated, involving individuals posing as plainclothes policemen who approach you, flashing a badge, and asking for your passport and wallet. If presented with a situation like this, you should insist on the presence of a uniformed police officer and request that any problem be resolved at a police station.

You should be cautious about entering into contracts with Romanian groups and/or organizations. There have been a number of incidents in which such contracts have not been honored. As a result, the U.S. Embassy recommends that all contracts entered into by foreigners are reviewed by a Romanian attorney. The Romanian legal system is difficult for foreigners to navigate, making the assistance of a local attorney nearly essential.

You should be very careful about developing relationships with individuals known only through contact over the Internet. Professional thieves in Romania commonly target U.S. citizens by contacting them through chat rooms or personal advertisements. They generally identify themselves as young Romanian women and develop a "relationship" with their victims over time. Requests for money may not begin for six months or longer when a fictional child becomes ill, a job is lost; a business needs start-up cash, etc. While numerous variations of this scam exist, money extortion remains the ultimate goal. If you believe you may have fallen victim to this kind of scam, contact American Citizens Services at the U.S. Embassy. Romanian authorities may be reluctant to prosecute these crimes unless you can show that coercion was used or a significant amount of your money was stolen.

Don’t buy counterfeit and pirated goods, even if they are widely available. Not only are the bootlegs illegal to bring back into the United States, but by buying them you may be breaking local law too.

Romania Penalties for Crime

Criminal Penalties

While traveling or living in Romania, you are subject to Romanian laws even if you are a U.S. citizen. Romanian laws and legal systems can be vastly differentthan our own. Criminal penalties may vary as well. Please see the Embassy’s legal information for more details about Romanian law and penalties. Please also note the Embassy’s judicial assistance information for more information about the Mutual Legal Assistance Treaty in force between Romania and the United States. You can be prosecuted under U.S. law if you engage in sexual conduct with children or use or disseminate child pornography. Under Romanian law, engaging in sexual conduct with a minor under the age of 15, or a minor between the ages of 15 and 18 where the adult has abused the minor's trust or had influence/authority over the minor, is a crime punishable with a 3-10 year prison sentence. Engaging in illicit sexual conduct with someone who has a physical or psychological disability is punishable with a 3-12 year prison sentence. Distribution of obscene materials depicting minors is a crime punishable with a 1-5 year prison sentence. Prostitution is illegal in Romania, regardless of the age of the participants.

Penalties for the possession, use, or trafficking of illegal drugs in Romania are severe, and convicted offenders can expect long jail sentences and heavy fines.

If Arrested: If you are arrested in Romania, Romanian authorities are required to notify the U.S. Embassy of your arrest. If you are concerned the Department of State may not be aware of your situation, you should request the police or prison officials to notify the embassy. A consular officer from the embassy will visit you, but will not be able to get you out of jail; you will need to consult an attorney. A list of English speaking attorneys can be found on the embassy’s website The Romanian authorities will provide you with an attorney and translator if you cannot afford one.

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