Romania Government

What is the capital of Romania?

Country Name Romania
Full Country Name none
Local - Long none
Local - Short Romania
Etymology- history of name the name derives from the Latin "Romanus" meaning "citizen of Rome" and was used to stress the common ancient heritage of Romania's three main regions - Moldavia, Transylvania, and Wallachia - during their gradual unification between the mid-19th century and early 20th century
Government Type semi-presidential republic
Capital Name Bucharest
Capital - geographic coordinate 44 26 N, 26 06 E
Capital Time Difference UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Daylight Savings Time +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
Independence 9 May 1877 (independence proclaimed from the Ottoman Empire; independence recognized on 13 July 1878 by the Treaty of Berlin); 26 March 1881 (kingdom proclaimed); 30 December 1947 (republic proclaimed)
National Holiday Unification Day (of Romania and Transylvania), 1 December (1918)
Constitution history: several previous; latest adopted 21 November 1991, approved by referendum and effective 8 December 1991

amendments: initiated by the president of Romania through a proposal by the government, by at least one-fourth of deputies or senators in Parliament, or by petition of eligible voters representing at least one-half of Romania’s counties; passage requires at least two-thirds majority vote by both chambers or – if mediation is required - by three-fourths majority vote in a joint session, followed by approval in a referendum; articles including those on national sovereignty, form of government, political pluralism, and fundamental rights and freedoms cannot be amended; amended 2003

Romania Capital City Map

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Romania Government and Politics

Who is the president of Romania?

Executive Branch: chief of state: President Klaus Werner IOHANNIS (since 21 December 2014)

head of government: Prime Minister Ludovic ORBAN (since 4 November 2019); Deputy Prime Minister Raluca TURCAN (since 4 November 2019); note - Prime Minister ORBAN lost a no-confidence vote on 5 February 2020; President IOHANNIS asked ORBAN to form a new government on 6 February 2020; Prime Minister ORBAN announced an unchanged government on 10 February 2020; on 24 February, the Constitutional Court rules that the president must nominate for Prime Minister someone who can get enough support in parliament to assume office, not a Prime Minister-designate who has been previously ousted in a no-confidence vote

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister

elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 10 November 2019 with a runoff on 24 November 2019 (next to be held in November 2024); prime minister appointed by the president with consent of Parliament

election results: Klaus IOHANNIS reelected president in second round; percent of vote - Klaus IOHANNIS (PNL) 66.1%, Viorica DANCILA (PSD) 33.9%; Ludovic ORBAN approved as prime minister with 240 votes
Citizenship Criteria: citizenship by birth: no

citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Romania

dual citizenship recognized: yes

residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years
Legal System: civil law system
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
Legislative Branch: description: bicameral Parliament or Parlament consists of:

Senate or Senat (136 seats; members directly elected in single- and multi-seat constituencies - including 2 seats for diaspora - by party-list, proportional representation vote; members serve 4-year terms)

Chamber of Deputies or Camera Deputatilor (329 seats; members directly elected in single- and multi-seat constituencies - including 4 seats for diaspora - by party-list, proportional representation vote; members serve 4-year terms)

elections:

Senate - last held on 11 December 2016 (next to be held by December 2020)

Chamber of Deputies - last held on 11 December 2016 (next to be held by December 2020)

election results:

Senate - percent of vote by party - PSD 45.7%, PNL 20.4%, USR 8.9%, UDMR 6.2%, ALDE 6%, PMP 5.7%, other 7.1%; seats by party - PSD 67, PNL 30, USR 13, UDMR 9, ALDE 9, PMP 8; composition - men 116, women 20, percent of women 14.7%

Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by party - PSD 45.5%, PNL 20%, USR 8.9%, UDMR 6.2%, ALDE 5.6%, PMP 5.4%, other 8.4%; seats by party - PSD 154, PNL 69, USR 30, UDMR 21, ALDE 20, PMP 18, minorities 17; composition men 261, women 68, percent of women 20.7%; note - total Parliament percent of women 20.7%
Judicial Branch: highest court(s): High Court of Cassation and Justice (consists of 111 judges organized into civil, penal, commercial, contentious administrative and fiscal business, and joint sections); Supreme Constitutional Court (consists of 9 members)

judge selection and term of office: High Court of Cassation and Justice judges appointed by the president upon nomination by the Superior Council of Magistracy, a 19-member body of judges, prosecutors, and law specialists; judges appointed for 6-year renewable terms; Constitutional Court members - 6 elected by Parliament and 3 appointed by the president; members serve 9-year, non-renewable terms

subordinate courts: Courts of Appeal; regional tribunals; first instance courts; military and arbitration courts
Regions or States: 41 counties (judete, singular - judet) and 1 municipality* (municipiu); Alba, Arad, Arges, Bacau, Bihor, Bistrita-Nasaud, Botosani, Braila, Brasov, Bucuresti (Bucharest)*, Buzau, Calarasi, Caras-Severin, Cluj, Constanta, Covasna, Dambovita, Dolj, Galati, Gorj, Giurgiu, Harghita, Hunedoara, Ialomita, Iasi, Ilfov, Maramures, Mehedinti, Mures, Neamt, Olt, Prahova, Salaj, Satu Mare, Sibiu, Suceava, Teleorman, Timis, Tulcea, Vaslui, Valcea, Vrancea
Political Parties and Leaders: Christian-Democratic National Peasants' Party or PNT-CD [Aurelian PAVELESCU] (formerly part of the ARD coalition)

Democratic Union of Hungarians in Romania or UDMR [Hunor KELEMEN]

Green Party [Remus CERNEA]

M10 Party [Monica MACOVEI]

National Liberal Party or PNL [Alina GORGHIU] - merged with former PDL and FC

National Union for Romania's Progress or UNPR [interim chairman Neculai ONTANU] - merged with former PP-DD

New Republic Party or NR [Alin Ioan BOTA]

Popular Movement Party or PMP [Traian BASESCU]

Party of the Alliance of Liberals and Democrats or ALDE [Calin POPESCU TARICEANU, Daniel CONSTANTIN]

Romanian Social Party or PSRo [Mircea GEOANA]

Save Romania Union Party or USR [Nicusor DAN]

Social Democratic Party or PSD [Liviu DRAGNEA]

Social Liberal Union or USL (coalition of PSD, PC, and UNPR)

United Romania Party or PRU [Bogdan DIACONU]
International Law Organization Participation: accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
International Organization Participation: Australia Group, BIS, BSEC, CBSS (observer), CD, CE, CEI, EAPC, EBRD, ECB, EIB, ESA, EU, FAO, G-9, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAIA (observer), MIGA, MONUSCO, NATO, NSG, OAS (observer), OIF, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, SELEC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
Diplomatic Representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador George Cristian MAIOR (since 17 September 2015)

chancery: 1607 23rd Street NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 332-4846, 4848, 4851, 4852

FAX: [1] (202) 232-4748

consulate(s) general: Chicago, Los Angeles, New York
Diplomatic Representation from US: chief of mission: Ambassador Hans G. KLEMM (since 21 September 2015)

embassy: Bulevardul Dr. Liviu Librescu 4-6, District 1, Bucharest, 015118

mailing address: American Embassy Bucharest, US Department of State, 5260 Bucharest Place, Washington, DC 20521-5260 (pouch)

telephone: [40] (21) 200-3300

FAX: [40] (21) 200-3442
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