Peru Government

What is the capital of Peru?

Country Name Peru
Full Country Name Republic of Peru
Local - Long República del Perú
Local - Short Perú
Etymology- history of name exact meaning is obscure, but the name may derive from a native word "biru" meaning "river"
Government Type presidential republic
Capital Name Lima
Capital - geographic coordinate 12 03 S, 77 03 W
Capital Time Difference UTC-5 (same time as Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Independence 28 July 1821 (from Spain)
National Holiday Independence Day, 28-29 July (1821)
Constitution history: several previous; latest promulgated 29 December 1993, enacted 31 December 1993

amendments: proposed by Congress, by the president of the republic with the approval of the Council of Ministers or by petition of at least 0.3% of voters; passage requires absolute majority approval by the Congress membership, followed by approval in a referendum; a referendum is not required if Congress approves the amendment by greater than two-thirds majority vote in each of two successive sessions; amended many times, last in 2021

Peru Capital City Map

Source: Google Maps

Peru Government and Politics

Who is the president of Peru?

Executive Branch: chief of state: President Dina Ercilia BOLUARTE Zegarra (since 7 December 2022); first vice president (vacant); second vice president (vacant); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government

head of government: President Dina Ercilia BOLUARTE Zegarra (since 7 December 2022); first vice president (vacant); second vice president (vacant)

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president

elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for nonconsecutive terms); election last held on 11 April 2021 with a runoff on 6 June 2021 (next to be held in April 2026)

election results:

2021: Jose Pedro CASTILLO Terrones elected president in second round; percent of vote in first round - Jose Pedro CASTILLO Terrones (PL) 18.9%, Keiko Sofia FUJIMORI Higuchi (FP) 13.4%, Rafael LOPEZ ALIAGA Cazorla (RP) 11.8%, Hernando DE SOTO Polar (Social Integration Party) 11.6%, Yonhy LESCANO Ancieta (AP) 9.1%, Veronika MENDOZA Frisch (JP) 7.9%, Cesar ACUNA Peralta (APP) 6%, George FORSYTH Sommer (VN) 5.7%, Daniel Belizario URRESTI Elera (PP) 5.6%, other 10%; percent of vote second round - Jose Pedro CASTILLO Terrones 50.1%, Keiko Sofia FUJIMORI Higuchi 49.9%

2016: Pedro Pablo KUCZYNSKI Godard elected president in second round; percent of vote in first round - Keiko FUJIMORI Higuchi (FP) 39.9%, Pedro Pablo KUCZYNSKI Godard (PPK) 21.1%, Veronika MENDOZA (FA) 18.7%, Alfredo BARNECHEA (AP) 7%, Alan GARCIA (APRA) 5.8%, other 7.5%; percent of vote in second round - Pedro Pablo KUCZYNSKI Godard 50.1%, Keiko FUJIMORI Higuchi 49.9%

note 1: First Vice President Dina Ercilia BOLUARTE Zegarra assumed the office of the president on 7 December 2022 after President Jose Pedro CASTILLO Terrones was impeached and arrested; BOLUARTE is the first woman to become president of Peru

note 2: Prime Minister Gustavo ADRIANZÉN (since 6 March 2024) does not exercise executive power; this power rests with the president; on 5 March 2024, Prime Minister Alberto OTÁROLA resigned amid allegations of corruption
Citizenship Criteria: Citizenship by birth: yes

Citizenship by descent: yes

Dual citizenship recognized: yes

Residency requirement for naturalization: 2 years
Legal System: civil law system
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal and compulsory until the age of 70
Legislative Branch: description: unicameral Congress of the Republic of Peru or Congreso de la República del Perú (130 seats; members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by closed party-list proportional representation vote to serve single 5-year terms)


last held on 11 April 2021 (next to be held in April 2026)

election results:

percent of vote by party/coalition - NA; seats by party/coalition - Free Peru 32, Popular Force 24, AP 15, APP 15, AvP 10, RP 9, Democratic Peru 7, We Are Peru 5, PP 5, JP 5, Purple Party 3; composition as of February 2024- men 80, women 50, percentage women 40%

note: seats by party/coalition as of January 2024 - Popular Force 23, Free Peru 16, AP 14, APP 11, AvP 9, Democratic Peru 9, RP 9, SP 6, PP 6, PB 5; BMCN 9, independent 25
Judicial Branch: highest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of 16 judges and divided into civil, criminal, and constitutional-social sectors)

judge selection and term of office: justices proposed by the National Board of Justice (a 7-member independent body), nominated by the president, and confirmed by the Congress; justices can serve until mandatory retirement at age 70

subordinate courts: Court of Constitutional Guarantees; Superior Courts or Cortes Superiores; specialized civil, criminal, and mixed courts; 2 types of peace courts in which professional judges and selected members of the local communities preside
Regions or States: 25 regions (regiones, singular - region) and 1 province* (provincia); Amazonas, Ancash, Apurimac, Arequipa, Ayacucho, Cajamarca, Callao, Cusco, Huancavelica, Huanuco, Ica, Junin, La Libertad, Lambayeque, Lima, Lima*, Loreto, Madre de Dios, Moquegua, Pasco, Piura, Puno, San Martin, Tacna, Tumbes, Ucayali

note: Callao, the largest port in Peru, is also referred to as a constitutional province, the only province of the Callao region
Political Parties and Leaders: Advance the Nation (Avanza País) or AvP [Aldo BORRERO Zeta]

Alliance for Progress (Alianza para el Progreso) or APP [Cesar ACUNA Peralta]

Broad Front (Frente Amplio) or FA [Marco ARANA]

Free Peru (Perú Libre) or PL [Vladimir CERRON Rojas]

Front for Hope (Frente Esperanza) [Fernando OLIVERA Vega]

Magisterial Block of National Concentration (Bloque Magisterial de Concertación Nacional) or BMCN [Álex PAREDES]

National Victory (Victoria Nacional) or VN [George FORSYTH Sommer]

Peru Bicentennial (Perú Bicentenario) or PB [Jorge MARTICORENA]

Popular Action (Acción Popular) or AP [Mesias GUEVARA Amasifuen]

Popular Force (Fuerza Popular) or FP [Keiko FUJIMORI Higuchi]

Popular Renewal (Renovación Popular) or RP [Rafael LOPEZ ALIAGA]

Purple Party (Partido Morado) [Luis DURAN Rojo]

Social Integration Party (Avanza País - Partido de Integración Social) [Aldo BORRERO]

Together For Perú (Juntos por el Peru) or JP [Robert SANCHEZ Palomino]

We Are Peru (Somos Perú) of SP [Patricia LI]

We Can Peru (Podemos Perú) or PP [Jose Leon LUNA Galvez]
International Law Organization Participation: accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
International Organization Participation: AIIB, APEC, BIS, CAN, CD, CELAC, EITI (compliant country), FAO, G-24, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (NGOs), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAES, LAIA, Mercosur (associate), MIGA, MINUSTAH, MONUSCO, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, Pacific Alliance, PCA, PROSUR, SICA (observer), UN, UNAMID, UNASUR, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNISFA, UNMISS, UNOCI, UNOOSA, UN Security Council (temporary), UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic Representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Alfredo Santiago Carlos FERRERO DIEZ CANSECO (since 27 February 2024)

chancery: 1700 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036

telephone: [1] (202) 833-9860

FAX: [1] (202) 659-8124

email address and website:

Embassy of Peru in the United States - E-United States - Platform of the Peruvian State (

consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Dallas, Denver, Hartford (CT), Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New York, Paterson (NJ), San Francisco, Washington DC
Diplomatic Representation from US: chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Chargé d’Affaires John T. McNAMARA (since 8 September 2023)

embassy: Avenida La Encalada, Cuadra 17 s/n, Surco, Lima 33

mailing address: 3230 Lima Place, Washington DC 20521-3230

telephone: [51] (1) 618-2000

FAX: [51] (1) 618-2724

email address and website:
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