Peru Government

What is the capital of Peru?

Country Name Peru
Full Country Name Republic of Peru
Local - Long Republica del Peru
Local - Short Peru
Etymology- history of name exact meaning is obscure, but the name may derive from a native word "biru" meaning "river"
Government Type presidential republic
Capital Name Lima
Capital - geographic coordinate 12 03 S, 77 03 W
Capital Time Difference UTC-5 (same time as Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Independence 28 July 1821 (from Spain)
National Holiday Independence Day, 28 July (1821)
Constitution several previous; latest promulgated 29 December 1993, enacted 31 December 1993; amended several times, last in 2015

Peru Capital City Map

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Peru Government and Politics

Who is the president of Peru?

Executive Branch:

chief of state: President Martin Alberto VIZCARRA Cornejo (since 23 March 2018); First Vice President (vacant); Second Vice President (vacant); note - the 21 March 2018 resignation of President Pedro Pablo KUCZYNSKI Godard (since 28 July 2016) was accepted by parliament on 23 March 2018; the president is both chief of state and head of government

head of government: President Martin Alberto VIZCARRA Cornejo (since 23 March 2018); First Vice President (vacant); Second Vice President (vacant)

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president

elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for nonconsecutive terms); election last held on 10 April 2016 with a runoff on 5 June 2016 (next to be held in April 2021)

election results: Pedro Pablo KUCZYNSKI Godard elected president in second round; percent of vote in first round - Keiko FUJIMORI Higuchi (Fuerza Popular) 39.9%, Pedro Pablo KUCZYNSKI Godard (Peruanos Por el Kambio) 21.1%, Veronika MENDOZA (Broad Front) 18.7%, Alfredo BARNECHEA (Popular Action) 7%, Alan GARCIA (APRA) 5.8%, other 7.5%; percent of vote in second round - Pedro Pablo KUCZYNSKI Godard 50.1%, Keiko FUJIMORI Higuchi 49.9%

note: Prime Minister Vicente Antonio ZEBALLOS Salinas (since 30 September 2019) does not exercise executive power; this power rests with the president

Citizenship Criteria:

citizenship by birth: yes

citizenship by descent: yes

dual citizenship recognized: yes

residency requirement for naturalization: 2 years

Legal System:

civil law system

Suffrage:

18 years of age; universal and compulsory until the age of 70

Legislative Branch:

description: unicameral Congress of the Republic of Peru or Congreso de la Republica del Peru (130 seats; members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by closed party-list proportional representation vote to serve single 5-year terms); note - a referendum held in December 2018 banned congressional reelection, holding members to a single consecutive term

elections: last held on 10 April 2016 with run-off election on 6 June 2016 (next to be held in April 2021); note - President VIZCARRA dissolved the Congress on 30 September 2019 and called new congressional elections for 26 January 2020; the new Congress will serve an abbreviated term, with the next regular election to be held in April 2021

election results: percent of vote by party/coalition - Fuerza Popular 36.3%, PPK 16.5%, Frente Amplio 13.9%, APP 9.2%; APRA 8.3%; AP 7.2%, other 8.6%; seats by party/coalition - Fuerza Popular 73, Frente Amplio 20, PPK 18, APP 9; APRA 5; AP 5; composition - men 94, women 36, percent of women 27.7%

Judicial Branch:

highest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of 16 judges and divided into civil, criminal, and constitutional-social sectors)

judge selection and term of office: justices proposed by the National Council of the Judiciary or National Judicial Council (a 7-member independent body), nominated by the president, and confirmed by the Congress (all appointments reviewed by the Council every 7 years); justices appointed for life or until age 70

subordinate courts: Court of Constitutional Guarantees; Superior Courts or Cortes Superiores; specialized civil, criminal, and mixed courts; 2 types of peace courts in which professional judges and selected members of the local communities preside

Regions or States:

25 regions (regiones, singular - region) and 1 province* (provincia); Amazonas, Ancash, Apurimac, Arequipa, Ayacucho, Cajamarca, Callao, Cusco, Huancavelica, Huanuco, Ica, Junin, La Libertad, Lambayeque, Lima, Lima*, Loreto, Madre de Dios, Moquegua, Pasco, Piura, Puno, San Martin, Tacna, Tumbes, Ucayali

note: Callao, the largest port in Peru, is also referred to as a constitutional province, the only province of the the Callao region

Political Parties and Leaders:

Alliance for Progress (Alianza para el Progreso) or APP [Cesar ACUNA Peralta]

Broad Front (Frente Amplio; also known as El Frente Amplio por Justicia, Vida y Libertad), a coalition of left-of-center parties including Tierra y Libertad [Marco ARANA Zegarra], Ciudadanos por el Gran Cambio [Salomon LERNER Ghitis], and Fuerza Social [Susana VILLARAN de la Puente]

Fuerza Popular (formerly Fuerza 2011) [Keiko FUJIMORI Higuchi]

National Solidarity (Solidaridad Nacional) or SN [Luis CASTANEDA Lossio]

Peru Posible or PP (a coalition of Accion Popular and Somos Peru) [Alejandro TOLEDO Manrique]

Peruvian Aprista Party (Partido Aprista Peruano) or PAP [Alan GARCIA Perez] (also referred to by its original name Alianza Popular Revolucionaria Americana or APRA)

Peruvian Nationalist Party [Ollanta HUMALA]

Peruvians for Change (Peruanos Por el Kambio) or PPK [Pedro Pablo KUCZYNSKI]

Popular Action (Accion Popular) or AP [Mesias GUEVARA Amasifuen]

Popular Christian Party (Partido Popular Cristiano) or PPC [Lourdes FLORES Nano]

International Law Organization Participation:

accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction

International Organization Participation:

APEC, BIS, CAN, CD, CELAC, EITI (compliant country), FAO, G-24, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (NGOs), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAES, LAIA, Mercosur (associate), MIGA, MINUSTAH, MONUSCO, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, Pacific Alliance, PCA, SICA (observer), UN, UNAMID, UNASUR, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNISFA, UNMISS, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic Representation in the US:

chief of mission: Ambassador Carlos Jose PAREJA Rios (since 16 September 2016)

chancery: 1700 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036

telephone: [1] (202) 833-9860 through 9869

FAX: [1] (202) 659-8124

consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Dallas, Denver, Hartford (CT), Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New York, Paterson (NJ), San Francisco, Washington DC

Diplomatic Representation from US:

chief of mission: Ambassador Brian A. NICHOLS (since 30 June 2014)

embassy: Avenida La Encalada, Cuadra 17 s/n, Surco, Lima 33

mailing address: P. O. Box 1995, Lima 1; American Embassy (Lima), APO AA 34031-5000

telephone: [51] (1) 618-2000

FAX: [51] (1) 618-2397

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