Netherlands Government

What is the capital of Netherlands?

Country Name Netherlands
Full Country Name Kingdom of the Netherlands
Local - Long Koninkrijk der Nederlanden
Local - Short Nederland
Etymology- history of name the country name literally means "the lowlands" and refers to the geographic features of the land being both flat and down river from higher areas (i.e., at the estuaries of the Scheldt, Meuse, and Rhine Rivers; only about half of the Netherlands is more than 1 meter above sea level)
Government Type parliamentary constitutional monarchy; part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands
Capital Name Amsterdam; note - The Hague is the seat of government
Capital - geographic coordinate 52 21 N, 4 55 E
Capital Time Difference UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

note: time descriptions apply to the continental Netherlands only, not to the Caribbean components
Daylight Savings Time +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
Independence 23 January 1579 (the northern provinces of the Low Countries conclude the Union of Utrecht breaking with Spain; on 26 July 1581 they formally declared their independence with an Act of Abjuration; however, it was not until 30 January 1648 and the Peace of Westphalia that Spain recognized this independence)
National Holiday King's Day (the King's birthday of 27 April (1967); celebrated on 26 April if 27 April is a Sunday)
Constitution history: previous 1597, 1798; latest adopted 24 August 1815 (substantially revised in 1848)

amendments: proposed as an “Act of Parliament” by or on behalf of the king or by the Second Chamber of the States General; the Second Chamber is dissolved after its first reading of the “Act”; passage requires a second reading by both the First Chamber and newly elected Second Chamber, followed by at least two-thirds majority vote of both chambers, and ratification by the king; amended many times, last in 2010

Netherlands Capital City Map

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Netherlands Government and Politics

Who is the president of Netherlands?

Executive Branch: chief of state: King WILLEM-ALEXANDER (since 30 April 2013); Heir Apparent Princess Catharina-Amalia (daughter of King WILLEM-ALEXANDER, born 7 December 2003)

head of government: Prime Minister Mark RUTTE (since 14 October 2010; Deputy Prime Ministers (since 26 October 2017) Hugo DE JONGE, Karin Kajsa OLLONGREN, and Carola SCHOUTEN (since 26 October 2017); note - Mark RUTTE heads his third cabinet put in place since 26 October 2017

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the monarch

elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; following Second Chamber elections, the leader of the majority party or majority coalition is usually appointed prime minister by the monarch; deputy prime ministers are appointed by the monarch
Citizenship Criteria: citizenship by birth: no

citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of the Netherlands

dual citizenship recognized: no

residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years
Legal System: civil law system based on the French system; constitution does not permit judicial review of acts of the States General
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
Legislative Branch: description: bicameral States General or Staten Generaal consists of:

First Chamber or Eerste Kamer (75 seats; members indirectly elected by the country's 12 provincial council members by proportional representation vote; members serve 4-year terms)

Second Chamber or Tweede Kamer (150 seats; members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote to serve up to 4-year terms)

elections:

First Chamber - last held on 27 May 2019 (next to be held on NA May 2023)

Second Chamber - last held on 15 March 2017 (next to be held 15 March 2021)

election results:

First Chamber - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - FvD 12, VVD 12, CDA 9, GL 8, D66 7, MvdA 6, PVV 5, SP 4, CU 4, other 8; composition - men 49, women 26, percent of women 34.7%

Second Chamber - percent of vote by party - VVD 21.3%, PVV 13.1%, CDA 12.4%, D66 12.2%, GL 9.1%, SP 9.1%, PvdA 5.7%, CU 3.4%, PvdD 3.2%, 50 Plus 3.1%, other 7.4%; seats by party - VVD 33, PVV 20, CDA 19, D66 19, GL 14, SP 14, PvdA 9, CU 5, PvdD 5, 50 Plus 4, other 8; composition - men 96, women 54, percent of women 36%; note - total States General percent of women 35.6%
Judicial Branch: highest court(s): Supreme Court or Hoge Raad (consists of 41 judges: the president, 6 vice-presidents, 31 justices or raadsheren, and 3 justices in exceptional service, referred to as buitengewone dienst); the court is divided into criminal, civil, tax, and ombuds chambers

judge selection and term of office: justices appointed by the monarch from a list provided by the Second Chamber of the States General; justices appointed for life or until mandatory retirement at age 70

subordinate courts: courts of appeal; district courts, each with up to 5 subdistrict courts
Regions or States: 12 provinces (provincies, singular - provincie); Drenthe, Flevoland, Fryslan (Friesland), Gelderland, Groningen, Limburg, Noord-Brabant (North Brabant), Noord-Holland (North Holland), Overijssel, Utrecht, Zeeland (Zealand), Zuid-Holland (South Holland)

note 1: the Netherlands is one of four constituent parts (countries) of the Kingdom of the Netherlands; the other three parts, Aruba, Curacao, and Sint Maarten, are all islands in the Caribbean; while all four parts are considered equal partners, in practice, most of the Kingdom's affairs are administered by the Netherlands, which makes up about 98% of the Kingdom's total land area and population

note 2: three other Caribbean islands, Bonaire, Saint Eustatius, and Saba, are considered to be special municipalities of the Netherlands proper
Political Parties and Leaders: Christian Democratic Appeal or CDA [Sybrand VAN HAERSMA BUMA]

Christian Union or CU [Gert-Jan SEGERS]

Democrats 66 or D66 [Alexander PECHTOLD]

50 Plus [Jan NAGEL]

Green Left or GL [Jesse KLAVER]

Labor Party or PvdA [Diederik SAMSOM]

Party for Freedom or PVV [Geert WILDERS]

Party for the Animals or PvdD [Marianne THIEME]

People's Party for Freedom and Democracy or VVD [Mark RUTTE]

Reformed Political Party or SGP [Kees VAN DER STAAIJ]

Socialist Party or SP [Emile ROEMER]

plus a few minor parties
International Law Organization Participation: accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
International Organization Participation: ADB (nonregional member), AfDB (nonregional member), Arctic Council (observer), Australia Group, Benelux, BIS, CBSS (observer), CD, CE, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECB, EIB, EITI (implementing country), EMU, ESA, EU, FAO, FATF, G-10, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGAD (partners), IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINUSMA, NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE, Pacific Alliance (observer), Paris Club, PCA, Schengen Convention, SELEC (observer), UN, UNCTAD, UNDOF, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMISS, UNRWA, UNTSO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
Diplomatic Representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Hendrik SCHUWER (since 17 September 2015)

chancery: 4200 Linnean Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 244-5300, [1] 877-388-2443

FAX: [1] (202) 362-3430

consulate(s) general: Chicago, Miami, New York, San Francisco
Diplomatic Representation from US: chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Adam H. STERLING (since 12 February 2016)

embassy: Lange Voorhout 102, 2514 EJ, The Hague

mailing address: PSC 71, Box 1000, APO AE 09715

telephone: [31] (70) 310-2209

FAX: [31] (70) 310-2207

consulate(s) general: Amsterdam
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