Where is Nepal located?

What countries border Nepal?

Nepal Weather

What is the current weather in Nepal?

Nepal Facts and Culture

What is Nepal famous for?

  • Cultural Attributes: Nepalese people live a simple rural life in small villages. Their homes are usually two-story stone or mud-brick houses. Most... More
  • Family: The basic social unit is the family; it takes precedence over the individual. Traditional families are large and include the... More
  • Personal Apperance: Women in the south and unmarried girls often wear Punjabi. Married Hindu women wear a red tika (made from vermilion... More
  • Recreation: Soccer, cricket, basketball, and table tennis are popular sports. Traditional forms of entertainment are festivals, folk dances, and folk music. More
  • Diet: The middle class eats chicken or goat when available. Millet and corn are staples for most Nepalese. Roti... More
  • Visiting: Nepalese are warm and hospitable. Tea with sugar and milk is usually offered to guests. Shoes are removed when entering... More
  • Dating: Customs regarding marriage vary among the different castes. Conventional dating and divorce are rare. For the Nepalese, "Sat" (chastity) is... More

Nepal Facts

What is the capital of Nepal?

Capital Kathmandu
Government Type federal parliamentary republic
Currency Nepalese Rupee (NPR)
Total Area 56,827 Square Miles
147,181 Square Kilometers
Location Southern Asia, between China and India
Language Nepali (official; spoken by 90% of the population), about a dozen other languages and about 30 major dialects
GDP - real growth rate 7.9%
GDP - per capita (PPP) $3,417.00 (USD)

Nepal Demographics

What is the population of Nepal?

Ethnic Groups Brahman, Chetri, Newar, Gurung, Magar, Tamang, Rai, Limbu, Sherpa, Tharu, and others (1995)
Languages As many as twenty major languages are spoken with many different dialects. The Nepali language is related to Hindi, which is the official language.
Nationality Noun Nepalese (singular and plural)
Population 30,327,877
Population Growth Rate 1.81%
Population in Major Urban Areas KATHMANDU (capital) 1.015 million
Urban Population 17.000000

Nepal Government

What type of government does Nepal have?

Executive Branch chief of state: President Ram Chandra POUDEL (since 13 March 2023); Vice President Ram Sahaya Prasad YADAV (since 20 March 2023)

head of government: Prime Minister Pushpa Kamal DAHAL (since 26 December 2022); Deputy Prime Ministers Narayan Kaji SHRESTHA (since 26 December 2022), Rabi LAMICHHANE (since 26 December 2022), Raghubir MAHASETH (since 6 March 2024), Upendra YADAV (since 10 March 2024) (an)

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister; cabinet split between Nepali Congress, Communist Party of Nepal-Maoist Centre, and various coalition partners

elections/appointments: president indirectly elected by an electoral college of the Federal Parliament and of the state assemblies for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 9 March 2023 (next to be held in 2028)

election results: 2023: Ram Chandra POUDEL elected president; electoral college vote - Ram Chandra POUDEL (NC) 33,802, Subash Chandra NEMBANG (CPN-UML) 15,518
Suffrage 18 years of age; universal
Citizenship citizenship by birth: yes

citizenship by descent: yes

dual citizenship recognized: no

residency requirement for naturalization: 15 years
National Holiday Constitution Day, 20 September (2015); note - marks the promulgation of Nepal’s constitution in 2015 and replaces the previous 28 May Republic Day as the official national day in Nepal; the Gregorian day fluctuates based on Nepal’s Hindu calendar
Constitution history: several previous; latest approved by the Second Constituent Assembly 16 September 2015, signed by the president and effective 20 September 2015

amendments: proposed as a bill by either house of the Federal Parliament; bills affecting a state border or powers delegated to a state must be submitted to the affected state assembly; passage of such bills requires a majority vote of that state assembly membership; bills not requiring state assembly consent require at least two-thirds majority vote by the membership of both houses of the Federal Parliament; parts of the constitution on the sovereignty, territorial integrity, independence, and sovereignty vested in the people cannot be amended; amended 2016, 2020
Independence 1768 (unified by Prithvi Narayan SHAH)

Nepal Video

YouTube, Devin Graham Nepal - Adventures of Teamsupertramp

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Nepal Geography

What environmental issues does Nepal have?

Overview Nepal’s geography is perhaps the most varied and dramatic of any nation in the world. From the lowlands of the south (about 150 feet above sea level), the terrain rises in a mere 100 miles to the dramatic heights of the world's highest mountain range, the Himalayas, including Mount Everest (Sagarmatha) at 29,028 feet, 10 other mountains above 24,000 feet, and more than 200 peaks over 21,000 feet.

Geographically, the country is divided into three roughly parallel strips, running east and west. The Terai Region, the southernmost strip about 15 miles wide, covers about 20% of the total land area. An extension of the Gangetic Plain of north India, once noted for its heavy jungle and still popular for big game—including tiger, rhinoceros, elephant, wild boar, crocodile, and river dolphin. The flat open country of the Terai Region blends into forested hills. Bird watching is a popular pastime in this area. The central region, sometimes called the "hill area," is about 60 miles wide. It ranges from about 3,000 to 12,000 feet above sea level, covering about 60% of the land area, and includes the Valley of Kathmandu with its encircling hills up to 9,000 feet. The northern region consists of the high mountain area, 12,000 to 29,000 feet, forming the majestic panorama of the perpetually snow-covered Himalayan Range. The region is about 25 miles wide and accounts for the remaining 20% of the total land area.

Climate Kathmandu’s climate is pleasant. During the fall to winter season (October-March), temperatures range from 30°F to 75°F. This season is characterized by morning fog, sunny days, and cold nights. It may rain occasionally, but Kathmandu has had no snow since 1939.

A temperature range from 40°F to 90°F, with intermittent rain, warm days, and usually comfortable nights, marks the spring season (March-May). Near the end of the spring season and before the rainy season begins, dust gathers heavily throughout the Kathmandu Valley, causing a haze that obscures the mountains.

The monsoon season begins in June and continues until late September. Temperatures in the rainy season range from 55°F to 90°F, and rainfall is from 30 to 60 inches. Rain showers occur almost daily.

Border Countries China 1,236 km, India 1,690 km
Environment - Current Issues deforestation (overuse of wood for fuel and lack of alternatives); contaminated water (with human and animal wastes, agricultural runoff, and industrial effluents); wildlife conservation; vehicular emissions
Environment - International Agreements party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands signed, but not ratified: Marine Life Conservation
Terrain Terai or flat river plain of the Ganges in south, central hill region, rugged Himalayas in north

Nepal Economy

How big is the Nepal economy?

Economic Overview A mix of challenges and opportunities can characterize Nepal's economy.

Agriculture Dominance: Agriculture remains a significant sector, employing a large portion of the population and contributing substantially to the GDP. However, it faces challenges such as low productivity, dependence on monsoon rains, and limited access to modern technology.

Tourism: Nepal's natural beauty, including the Himalayas and Mount Everest, attracts tourists worldwide. Tourism plays a crucial role in the economy, providing employment opportunities and foreign exchange earnings. However, political instability and natural disasters like the 2015 earthquake have impacted tourism.

Remittances: Nepal receives substantial remittances from its citizens working abroad, particularly in countries like India, the Middle East, and Southeast Asia. Remittances contribute significantly to household incomes and the overall economy, but concerns about their sustainability and long-term impact on domestic productivity exist.

Infrastructure Development: Nepal faces challenges in infrastructure development, including transportation, energy, and telecommunications. Investment in infrastructure is essential for economic growth and improving the country's connectivity with regional and global markets.

Political Instability: Political instability and frequent changes in government have been a persistent challenge for Nepal. This instability can deter foreign investment, hinder policy implementation, and contribute to economic uncertainty.

Trade and Economic Integration: Nepal's geographic location between India and China presents trade and economic integration opportunities. However, trade imbalances, border disputes, and transit challenges can hinder Nepal's ability to capitalize on its strategic position fully.

Development Challenges: Nepal faces numerous development challenges, including poverty, inequality, access to education and healthcare, and environmental degradation. Addressing these challenges requires sustained investment in human capital, social infrastructure, and sustainable development initiatives.
Industries tourism, carpet, textile; small rice, jute, sugar, and oilseed mills; cigarette; cement and brick production
Currency Name and Code Nepalese Rupee (NPR)
Export Partners India 68%, United States 10%
Import Partners India 70%, China 15%

Nepal News and Current Events

What current events are happening in Nepal?
Source: Google News

Nepal Travel Information

What makes Nepal a unique country to travel to?

Country Description

Nepal is a developing country with extensive tourist facilities, which vary widely in quality and price. The capital is Kathmandu. Nepal ended a ten-year Maoist insurgency in November 2006 and established an interim government in January 2007. Since that time, the major political parties have been unable to come to an agreement on a new constitution. This stalemate has created an environment of political uncertainty. However a caretaker government is in place and the major political parties continue to negotiate to resolve this constitutional crisis.


Although still relatively low, crime in Kathmandu and throughout the country has risen in some categories and declined in others. In a number of recent cases, criminals were found to have used sophisticated scams to commit crimes, particularly in Kathmandu. In addition, there continue to be reports of robberies, burglaries, and sexual assaults involving foreigners, including in the popular tourist districts of Thamel and Bouddha in Kathmandu. Police also report that foreigners have from time to time had sedative drugs placed in their food or drink by individuals who seek to rob or otherwise take advantage of them. Visitors should avoid walking alone after dark, especially in areas experiencing power cuts, and should avoid carrying large sums of cash or wearing expensive jewelry.

In addition, visitors should consider exchanging money only at banks and hotels. There have been several reported incidents in which tourists have had their belongings stolen from their hotel rooms while they were asleep or away from their room. Valuables should be stored in the hotel safety deposit box and should never be left unattended in hotel rooms. Travelers should be especially alert at or near major tourist sites, including the Thamel district of Kathmandu, where pick-pocketing and bag-snatching are most common. It is recommended that passports and cash be carried in a protected neck pouch or money belt, not in a backpack or handbag.

Visitors to Nepal should also be vigilant against various scams. One of the most prevalent involves a request to carry jewelry to a business contact in another country. This scam often results in the unsuspecting tourist being forced to withdraw large sums of cash from his or her bank account and creates the risk of further penalties at the border. Please also see the section on Special Circumstances below regarding scams suffered by individuals coming to Nepal to volunteer at orphanages or other organizations. Nepali police forces have limited resources and lack sufficient manpower to effectively enforce law and order, as well as to pursue claims of fraud or petty crime. Their services are not up to Western standards. Many cases reported to the police remain unresolved.

Criminal activity in the Terai, the southern plains region of Nepal bordering India, remain at levels higher than the country as a whole. In the Terai, criminal groups sometimes extort funds and kidnap people, although this activity generally is not directed at U.S. citizens. Extortion tactics used by armed groups in the region include assault, vandalism, and low-level IED attacks.

Don’t buy counterfeit and pirated goods, even if they are widely available. Purchase of bootlegged goods is illegal in the United States, and may be illegal as well under local law. Do not agree to carry or store any packages from a stranger. There have been instances in which the packages concealed contraband material or drugs, and the foreigner who accepted the package was arrested by police for possessing the illegal substance.

Criminal Penalties

While you are traveling in Nepal, you are subject to its laws. Foreign laws and legal systems are vastly different from our own. In some places you may be taken in for questioning if you do not have your passport with you. In some places, it is illegal to take pictures of certain buildings. Driving under the influence could land you immediately in jail. These criminal penalties will vary from country to country. There are also some things that might be legal in Nepal, but still illegal in the United States. Keep in mind that you can be prosecuted under U.S. law if you buy pirated goods in Nepal and bring them back to the United States. Engaging in sexual conduct with children or using or disseminating child pornography in a foreign country are crimes prosecutable in the United States. If you break local laws in Nepal, your U.S. passport will not help you avoid arrest or prosecution. It is very important to know what’s legal and what’s not where you are going.

Under the provisions of the Vienna Convention on Consular Relations, bilateral agreements with certain countries, and customary international law, if you are arrested in Nepal, you have the option to request that the police, prison officials, or other authorities alert the U.S. Embassy in Kathmandu and to have communications from you forwarded to the Embassy.


As many as twenty major languages are spoken with many different dialects. The Nepali language is related to Hindi, which is the official language.

Medical Facilities and Health Information

Medical care in Nepal is extremely limited and is generally not up to Western standards. Typical travel medical complaints can be addressed by the clinics in Kathmandu and some surgeries can be performed in the capital. However, serious illnesses often require evacuation to the nearest adequate medical facility (New Delhi, Singapore, or Bangkok). Illnesses and injuries suffered while hiking in remote areas often require evacuation by helicopter to Kathmandu. Those trekking in remote areas of Nepal should factor the high cost of a potential helicopter rescue into their financial considerations. Travelers are recommended to purchase medical evacuation insurance as medical evacuations can cost thousands of dollars and payment will be expected in cash before the medevac can take place if there is no insurance coverage. There is minimal mental health care available in Nepal. U.S. citizens with mental health problems are generally stabilized and transported to the United States or to another regional center for care. The U.S. Embassy in Kathmandu maintains a list of local medical facilities.

Stray dogs are common on the streets of Kathmandu. Visitors should be aware that stray dogs and monkeys may be infected with rabies. Any animal bites should be carefully handled and immediately brought to a medical practitioner’s attention.

Medical facilities are often overwhelmed due to insufficient resources. Emergency medical services are of poor quality compared to that available in the United States. Food hygiene and sanitary food handling practices are uncommon in Nepal and precautions should be taken to prevent water and food-borne illnesses.

Safety and Security

Fueled by an unstable political environment, there are periodic small-scale improvised explosive device (IED) incidents throughout the country and youth wings of political parties continue to engage in violent extortion efforts.

Bandhs (General Strikes):"Bandhs" (forced closure of businesses and schools and halting of vehicular traffic) occur in Nepal frequently and are commonly used as a form of political agitation. Bandhs tend to be unpredictable, may include violent incidents, and may take place without any prior notice. In past years, bandhs have lasted for periods as short as a few hours to as long as several days or even weeks, causing acute shortages of daily food supplies and bringing vehicular traffic to a complete halt. Individuals who do not comply with a bandh may be harassed by bandh organizers. In the past year, bandhs have been most frequent in the Terai, with fewer significant bandhs in the Kathmandu Valley. Bandhs in the principal trekking areas are infrequent but do occur from time to time. Although bandh activity generally is not directed at foreign travelers, tourists attempting to defy bandhs may be subject to intimidation and/or violence.

During bandhs, U.S. citizens are urged to avoid all unnecessary travel. If travel is necessary, you can check with the U.S. Embassy, with local police by dialing “100,” or with traffic control by dialing “103.” The police can advise which routes and forms of transportations are advisable to use. If you are planning air travel to or from Nepal during scheduled bandhs, be aware that transportation to and from airports throughout Nepal could be affected, although bandh organizers often allow passage of specially marked buses operated by the Nepal Tourism Board to circulate between the airport and major tourist hotels. Consult the U.S. Embassy website for security-related messages for U.S. citizens, as well as the Nepal Ministry of Tourism for the latest security information.

Traffic Safety and Road Conditions

While in a foreign country, U.S. citizens may encounter road conditions that differ significantly from those in the United States. The information below concerning Nepal is provided for general reference only and may not apply in every situation.

In Nepal, vehicles are driven on the left-hand side of the road. Travel via road in areas outside the Kathmandu Valley remains dangerous. In general, roads in Nepal are in poor condition and lack basic safety features, resulting in significant numbers of accidents and fatalities. Deaths from motorcycle accidents have risen dramatically in recent years and U.S. citizens should consider avoiding riding motorcycles in Nepal, particularly on highways. It is dangerous to travel on the roof of buses as live electrical and other communications wires hang low in many places. Traffic police also impose fines and detain individuals for riding on the roof of buses. Long-distance buses often drive recklessly and bus accidents involving multiple fatalities are not uncommon.

Visitors throughout Nepal, including in Kathmandu, are encouraged to use metered taxis and avoid public buses and microbuses. Many taxi drivers will refuse to use the meter, insisting on negotiating the price instead. In addition, there have been instances of taxi drivers tampering with the meters in an attempt to charge higher than normal fares. If you believe that you are being overcharged, you may wish to file a complaint with the traffic police on the street or at the nearest local police station.

In the Kathmandu Valley, traffic jams are common on major streets, particularly between 9:00 a.m. and 7:00 p.m. as most offices in Kathmandu are open from 10:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m. Traffic is poorly regulated, and the volume of vehicles on the roads continues to increase faster than improvements in infrastructure. Many drivers are neither properly licensed nor trained, vehicles are poorly maintained, and public vehicles are often overloaded. Sidewalks are nonexistent in many areas and many drivers do not yield the right-of-way to pedestrians in marked crosswalks. A road expansion project, begun in earnest in 2012, has left considerable debris along many roads in Kathmandu. Pedestrians are forced either to walk over the debris, or walk into the roadway to avoid it. Pedestrians account for a considerable portion of all traffic fatalities in Nepal.

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