Mongolia Geography

What is the terrain and geography like in Mongolia?

Overview:

Mongolia is a large and sparsely populated country landlocked between China and Russia. Mongolia is the 6th largest country in Asia and 18th largest in the world. The capital, Ulaanbaatar, is over 4,000 feet above sea level.

The country is divided into three basic zones: the Gobi, a vast, dry grassland in the east and south; the low Hangai mountains in the north and northwest; and the high Altai Mountains of the west and northwest. Mongolia’s most scenic lake is Lake Hovsgol located in the Altai, where elevations range up to 15,000 feet. There are three major river systems: the Tuul, which runs through Ulaanbaatar; the Orhon, which combines with the Tuul and flows into Lake Baikal in Russia; and the Selenge in the northeast.

Geography - note:

landlocked; strategic location between China and Russia

Climate:

Because of the elevation and distance from any ocean or sea, Mongolia has a harsh continental climate. Marked seasonal, even daily, changes in temperature, numerous high-pressure systems, and severe cold occur most of the year. A remarkably sunny country, Mongolia enjoys 250 sunny days a year, often with clear cloudless skies, making even the coldest temperatures more tolerable.

Mongolia Use of Natural Resources

Mongolia Environment

Climate:

Because of the elevation and distance from any ocean or sea, Mongolia has a harsh continental climate. Marked seasonal, even daily, changes in temperature, numerous high-pressure systems, and severe cold occur most of the year. A remarkably sunny country, Mongolia enjoys 250 sunny days a year, often with clear cloudless skies, making even the coldest temperatures more tolerable.

Terrain:

vast semidesert and desert plains, grassy steppe, mountains in west and southwest; Gobi Desert in south-central

Natural Resources:

oil, coal, copper, molybdenum, tungsten, phosphates, tin, nickel, zinc, wolfram, fluorspar, gold, silver, iron, phosphate

Natural Hazards:

dust storms, grassland and forest fires, drought, and ""zud,"" which is harsh winter conditions

Irrigated Land:

325 Square Miles
843 Square Kilometers

Environmental Issues:

limited natural fresh water resources in some areas; the policies of former Communist regimes promoted rapid urbanization and industrial growth that had negative effects on the environment; the burning of soft coal in power plants and the lack of enforcement of environmental laws severely polluted the air in Ulaanbaatar; deforestation, overgrazing, and the converting of virgin land to agricultural production increased soil erosion from wind and rain; desertification and mining activities had a deleterious effect on the environment

Environment - International Agreements:

party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Mongolia Geography

Geographic Location Asia
Total Area 603,905 Square Miles
1,564,116 Square Kilometers
Land Area 599,828 Square Miles
1,553,556 Square Kilometers
Water Area 4,077 Square Miles
10,560 Square Kilometers
Land Boundaries 5,108 Miles
8,220 Kilometers
Irrigated Land 325 Square Miles
843 Square Kilometers
Border Countries China 4,677 km, Russia 3,485 km
Geographic Coordinates 46 00 N, 105 00 E
Terrain vast semidesert and desert plains, grassy steppe, mountains in west and southwest; Gobi Desert in south-central
Highest Point 4,374 Meters
Highest Point Location Nayramadlin Orgil (Huyten Orgil) 4,374 m
Lowest Point 518 Meters
Lowest Point Location Hoh Nuur 518 m
Natural Resources oil, coal, copper, molybdenum, tungsten, phosphates, tin, nickel, zinc, wolfram, fluorspar, gold, silver, iron, phosphate
Time Zone UTC+8 (13 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

note: Mongolia has two time zones - Ulaanbaatar Time (8 hours in advance of UTC) and Hovd Time (7 hours in advance of UTC)
Daylight saving time +1hr, begins last Saturday in March; ends last Saturday in September
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