Mongolia Economy

Is Mongolia a rich country?

Foreign direct investment in Mongolia's extractive industries – which are based on extensive deposits of copper, gold, coal, molybdenum, fluorspar, uranium, tin, and tungsten - has transformed Mongolia's landlocked economy from its traditional dependence on herding and agriculture. Exports now account for more than 40% of GDP. Mongolia depends on China for more than 60% of its external trade - China receives some 90% of Mongolia's exports and supplies Mongolia with more than one-third of its imports. Mongolia also relies on Russia for 90% of its energy supplies, leaving it vulnerable to price increases. Remittances from Mongolians working abroad, particularly in South Korea, are significant.

Soviet assistance, at its height one-third of GDP, disappeared almost overnight in 1990 and 1991 at the time of the dismantlement of the USSR. The following decade saw Mongolia endure both deep recession, because of political inaction, and natural disasters, as well as strong economic growth, because of market reforms and extensive privatization of the formerly state-run economy. The country opened a fledgling stock exchange in 1991. Mongolia joined the WTO in 1997 and seeks to expand its participation in regional economic and trade regimes.

Growth averaged nearly 9% per year in 2004-08 largely because of high copper prices globally and new gold production. By late 2008, Mongolia was hit by the global financial crisis and Mongolia's real economy contracted 1.3% in 2009. In early 2009, the IMF reached a $236 million Stand-by Arrangement with Mongolia and it emerged from the crisis with a stronger banking sector and better fiscal management. In October 2009, Mongolia passed long-awaited legislation on an investment agreement to develop the Oyu Tolgoi (OT) mine, among the world's largest untapped copper-gold deposits. However, a dispute with foreign investors developing OT called into question the attractiveness of Mongolia as a destination for foreign investment. This caused a severe drop in FDI, and a slowing economy, leading to the dismissal of Prime Minister Norovyn ALTANKHUYAG in November 2014. The economy had grown more than 10% per year between 2011 and 2013 - largely on the strength of commodity exports and high government spending - before slowing to 7.8% in 2014, and falling to the 2% level in 2015. Growth rebounded from a brief 1.6% contraction in the third quarter of 2016 to 5.8% during the first three quarters of 2017, largely due to rising commodity prices.

The May 2015 agreement with Rio Tinto to restart the OT mine and the subsequent $4.4 billion finance package signing in December 2015 stemmed the loss of investor confidence. The current government has made restoring investor trust and reviving the economy its top priority, but has failed to invigorate the economy in the face of the large drop-off in foreign direct investment, mounting external debt, and a sizeable budget deficit. Mongolia secured a $5.5 billion financial assistance package from the IMF and a host of international creditors in May 2017, which is expected to improve Mongolia’s long-term fiscal and economic stability as long as Ulaanbaatar can advance the agreement’s difficult contingent reforms, such as consolidating the government’s off-balance sheet liabilities and rehabilitating the Mongolian banking sector.

Mongolia Economy Data

What is the GDP of Mongolia?

Currency Name and Code Mongolia Tughrik (MNT)
GDP - Gross Domestic Product (PPP) $34,870,000,000 (USD)
GDP - official exchange rate $12,410,000,000 (USD)
GDP - real growth rate 3.5%
GDP Per Capita $12,500.00 (USD)
GDP by Sector- agriculture 16.6%
GDP by Sector- Industry 33.1%
GDP by Sector- services 50.3%
GDP - composition, by end use household consumption: 53.7%

government consumption: 11.3%

investment in fixed capital: 30%

investment in inventories: 5%

exports of goods and services: 51.9%

imports of goods and services: -51.9%
Population Below Poverty Line 36.1%
Inflation Rate 13%
Labor Force 1,068,000
Labor Force By Occupation- agriculture 33%
Labor Force By Occupation- industry 10.6%
Labor Force By Occupation- services 56.4%
Unemployment Rate 11.5%
Fiscal Year calendar year
Annual Budget $2,260,000,000 (USD)
Budget Surplus or Deficit - percent of GDP -8.1%
Taxes and other revenues - percent of GDP 31.1%
Major Industries construction materials; mining (coal, copper, molybdenum, fluorspar, and gold); oil; food and beverages; processing of animal products
Industrial Growth Rate 3%
Agriculture Products wheat, barley, potatoes, forage crops, sheep, goats, cattle, camels, horses
Exchange Rate per US Dollar togrog/tugrik (MNT)
Child Labor - % of children ages 5-14 18%
Child Labor - # of children ages 5-14 106,203
Commercial Bank Prime Lending Rate 17.5%

Labor Force by Occupation- As reported by Mongolia

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