Malaysia Government

What is the capital of Malaysia?

Country Name Malaysia
Full Country Name none
Local - Long none
Local - Short Malaysia
Former Name British Malaya, Malayan Union, Federation of Malaya
Etymology- history of name the name means "Land of the Malays"
Government Type federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy

note: all Peninsular Malaysian states have hereditary rulers (commonly referred to as sultans) except Melaka (Malacca) and Pulau Pinang (Penang); those two states along with Sabah and Sarawak in East Malaysia have governors appointed by government; powers of state governments are limited by the federal constitution; under terms of federation, Sabah and Sarawak retain certain constitutional prerogatives (e.g., right to maintain their own immigration controls)
Capital Name Kuala Lumpur; note - nearby Putrajaya is referred to as a federal government administrative center but not the capital; Parliament meets in Kuala Lumpur
Capital - geographic coordinate 3 10 N, 101 42 E
Capital Time Difference UTC+8 (13 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Independence 31 August 1957 (from the UK)
National Holiday Independence Day (or Merdeka Day), 31 August (1957) (independence of Malaya); Malaysia Day, 16 September (1963) (formation of Malaysia)
Constitution history: previous 1948; latest drafted 21 February 1957, effective 27 August 1957

amendments: proposed as a bill by Parliament; passage requires at least two-thirds majority vote by the Parliament membership in the bill’s second and third readings; a number of constitutional sections are excluded from amendment or repeal; amended many times, last in 2019

Malaysia Capital City Map

Source: Google Maps

Malaysia Government and Politics

Who is the president of Malaysia?

Executive Branch: chief of state: King Sultan IBRAHIM ibni al-Marhum Sultan Iskandar (since 31 January 2024); the position of the king is primarily ceremonial, but he is the final arbiter on the appointment of the prime minister

head of government: Prime Minister ANWAR Ibrahim (since 25 November 2022)

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the prime minister from among members of Parliament with the consent of the king

elections/appointments: king elected by and from the hereditary rulers of 9 states for a 5-year term; election is on a rotational basis among rulers of the 9 states; election last held on 24 October 2023 (next to be held in October 2028 with installation in January 2029); prime minister designated from among members of the House of Representatives; following legislative elections, the leader who commands support of the majority of members in the House becomes prime minister
Citizenship Criteria: citizenship by birth: no

citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Malaysia

dual citizenship recognized: no

residency requirement for naturalization: 10 out 12 years preceding application
Legal System: mixed legal system of English common law, Islamic law (sharia), and customary law; judicial review of legislative acts in the Federal Court at request of supreme head of the federation
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal (2019)
Legislative Branch: description: bicameral Parliament of Malaysia or Parlimen Malaysia consists of:

Senate or Dewan Negara (70 seats; 44 members appointed by the king and 26 indirectly elected by 13 state legislatures; members serve 3-year terms)

House of Representatives or Dewan Rakyat (222 seats; members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote to serve 5-year terms) (2016)

elections: Senate - appointed

House of Representatives - last held on 19 Nov 2022 (next to be held in 2027)

election results: Senate - appointed; composition - men 41, women 10, percent of women 29.6%

House of Representatives - percent of vote by party/coalition - PH 37.5%, PN 30.4%, BN 22.4%, GPS 4%, WARISAN 1.8%, GRS 1.3%, other 2.6%; seats by party/coalition - PH 90, PN 50, BN 42, GPS 18, WARISAN 7, PEJUANG 4, PBM 3, PSB 1, MUDA 1, independent 4, vacant 2; composition - 192 men, 30 women; percent women 13.5%
Judicial Branch: highest court(s): Federal Court (consists of the chief justice, president of the Court of Appeal, chief justice of the High Court of Malaya, chief judge of the High Court of Sabah and Sarawak, 8 judges, and 1 "additional" judge); note - Malaysia has a dual judicial hierarchy of civil and religious (sharia) courts

judge selection and term of office: Federal Court justices appointed by the monarch on advice of the prime minister; judges serve until mandatory retirement at age 66 with the possibility of a single 6-month extension

subordinate courts: Court of Appeal; High Court; Sessions Court; Magistrates' Court
Regions or States: 13 states (negeri-negeri, singular - negeri); Johor, Kedah, Kelantan, Melaka, Negeri Sembilan, Pahang, Perak, Perlis, Pulau Pinang, Sabah, Sarawak, Selangor, Terengganu; and 1 federal territory (Wilayah Persekutuan) with 3 components, Kuala Lumpur, Labuan, and Putrajaya
Political Parties and Leaders: National Front (Barisan Nasional) or BN [Ahmad ZAHID Hamidi]:

All Malaysia Indian Progressive Front or IPF (Barisan Kemajuan India Se-Malaysia) or AMIPF [LOGANATHAN Thoraisamy]

Love Malaysia Party (Parti Cinta Malaysia) or PCM [HUAN Cheng Guan]

Malaysian Chinese Association (Persatuan Cina Malaysia) or MCA [WEE Ka Siong]

Malaysian Indian Congress (Kongres India Malaysia) or MIC [VIGNESWARAN Sanasee]

Malaysian Indian Muslim Congress (Kongres India Muslim Malaysia) or KIMMA [Syed IMBRAHIM Kader]

Malaysia Makkal Sakti Party (Parti Makkal Sakti Malaysia) or MMSP [R.S. THANENTHIRAN]

United Malays National Organization (Pertubuhan Kebansaan Melayu Bersatu) or UMNO [Ahmad ZAHID Hamidi]

United Sabah People's Party (Parti Bersatu Rakyat Sabah) or PBRS [Arthur Joseph KURUP]

Alliance of Hope (Pakatan Harapan) or PH [ANWAR Ibrahim]:

Democratic Action Party (Parti Tindakan Demokratik) or DAP [Anthony LOKE Siew Fook]

Malaysian United Democratic Alliance (Ikatan Demokratik Malaysia) or MUDA [Syed SADDIQ Syed Adbdul Rahman]

National Trust Party (Parti Amanah Negara) or AMANAH [MOHAMAD Sabu]

People's Justice Party (Parti Keadilan Rakyat) or PKR [ANWAR Ibrahim]

United Progressive Kinabalu Organization (Pertubuhan Kinabalu Progresif Bersatu) or UPKO [EWON Benedick]

National Alliance (Perikatan Nasional) or PN [MUHYIDDIN Yassin]:

Malaysian People's Movement Party (Parti Gerakan Rakyat Malaysia) or GERAKAN or PGRM [LAU Hoe Chai]

Malaysian United Indigenous Party (Parti Pribumi Bersatu Malaysia) or PPBM or BERSATU [MUHYIDDIN Yassin]

Pan-Malaysian Islamic Party (Parti Islam Se-Malaysia) or PAS [Abdul HADI Awang]

Sabah People's Alliance (Gabungan Rakya Sabah) or GRS [HAJIJI Noor]:

Homeland Solidarity Party (Parti Solidariti Tanah Airku) or STAR [Jeffrey KITINGAN]

Sabah People's Ideas Party (Parti Gagasan Rakyat Sabah) or GAGASAN or PGRS [HAJIJI Noor]

Sabah Progressive Party (Parti Maju Sabah) or SAPP [Yong Teck Lee]

United Sabah National Organization (Pertubuhan Kebangsaan Sabah Bersatu ((Baru)) or USNO (Baru) [PANDIKAR Amin Mulia]

United Sabah Party (Parti Bersatu Sabah) or PBS [Maximus Johnity ONGKILI]

Sarawak Parties Alliance (Gabungan Parti Sarawak) or GPS [Abang Abdul Rahman Zohari Abang Openg or ABANG JOHARI or "Abang Jo"]:

Progressive Democratic Party (Parti Demokratik Progresif) or PDP [TIONG King Sing]

Sarawak People's Party (Parti Rakyat Sarawak) or PRS [Joseph SALANG Gandum]

Sarawak United People's Party (Parti Rakyat Bersatu Sarawak) or SUPP [SIM Kui Hian]

United Bumiputera Heritage Party (Parti Pesaka Bumiputera Bersata) or PBB [Abang Abdul Rahman Zohari Abang Openg or ABANG JOHARI or "Abang Jo"]

Others receiving votes in 2022 general election:

Malaysian Nation Party (Parti Bangsa Malaysia) or PBM [Larry SNG Wei Shein]

Heritage Party (Parti Warisan) or WARISAN [SHAFIE Apdal]

Social Democratic Harmony Party (Parti Kesejahteraan Demokratik Masyarakat) or KDM [PETER Anthony]

Malaysian United Democratic Alliance (Ikatan Demokratik Malaysia) or MUDA [Syed SADDIQ]
International Law Organization Participation: has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt
Diplomatic Representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Mohamed NAZRI Bin Abdul Aziz (since 19 April 2023)

chancery: 3516 International Court NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 572-9700

FAX: [1] (202) 572-9882

email address and website:

consulate(s) general: Los Angeles, New York
Diplomatic Representation from US: chief of mission: Ambassador Edgard D. KAGAN (since 20 March 2024)

embassy: 376 Jalan Tun Razak, 50400 Kuala Lumpur

mailing address: 4210 Kuala Lumpur, Washington DC 20521-4210

telephone: [60] (3) 2168-5000

FAX: [60] (3) 2142-2207

email address and website:
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