Where is Kyrgyzstan located?

What countries border Kyrgyzstan?

Kyrgyzstan Weather

What is the current weather in Kyrgyzstan?

Kyrgyzstan Facts and Culture

What is Kyrgyzstan famous for?

  • Cultural Attributes: Kyrgyzs are very hospitable.  They often honor their guests by serving them a cooked sheep's head. For the most part... More
  • Family: Women preform most of the household chores. Women in the city are encouraged to be both professionals as well as... More
  • Personal Apperance: Traditional hats worn by men are called ak-kalpak (white hat). Ornate silks are used for special occasions and ceremonies. More
  • Recreation: Sports with horses are very popular, Racing and wrestling on horseback are especially enjoyed. Ulak tartysh. or wrestling on horseback... More
  • Food and Recipes: Traditional Kyrgyz foods include manti (mutton dumplings) irikat ( a type of pasta salad made with noodles, carrots, and radishes)... More

Kyrgyzstan Facts

What is the capital of Kyrgyzstan?

Capital Bishkek
Government Type parliamentary republic
Currency Som (KWD)
Total Area 77,201 Square Miles
199,951 Square Kilometers
Location Central Asia, west of China, south of Kazakhstan
Language Kyrgyz - official language, Russian - official language
GDP - real growth rate 2%
GDP - per capita (PPP) $3,400.00 (USD)

Kyrgyzstan Demographics

What is the population of Kyrgyzstan?

Ethnic Groups Kyrgyz 64.9%, Uzbek 13.8%, Russian 12.5%, Dungan 1.1%, Ukrainian 1%, Uygur 1%, other 5.7% (1999 census)
Nationality Noun Kyrgyzstani(s)
Population 5,964,897
Population Growth Rate 0.97%
Population in Major Urban Areas BISHKEK (capital) 839,000
Urban Population 35.300000

Kyrgyzstan Government

What type of government does Kyrgyzstan have?

Executive Branch chief of state: President Sadyr JAPAROV (since 28 January 2021); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government

head of government: President Sadyr JAPAROV (since 28 January 2021)

cabinet: Cabinet of Ministers appointed by the president

elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 10 January 2021 (next to be held in 2027)

election results:

2021: Sadyr JAPAROV elected president in first round; percent of vote - Sadyr JAPAROV (Mekenchil) 79.2%, Adakhan MADUMAROV (United Kyrgyzstan) 6.8%, other 14%

2017: Sooronbay JEENBEKOV elected president; Sooronbay JEENBEKOV (Social Democratic Party of Kyrgyzstan) 54.7%, Omurbek BABANOV (independent) 33.8%, Adakhan MADUMAROV (United Kyrgyzstan) 6.6%, other 4.9%

note: the President is both Chief of State and Head of Government.
Suffrage 18 years of age; universal
Citizenship citizenship by birth: no

citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Kyrgyzstan

dual citizenship recognized: yes, but only if a mutual treaty on dual citizenship is in force

residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years
National Holiday Independence Day, 31 August (1991)
Constitution history: previous 1993, 2007, 2010; latest approved by referendum in April 2021 that transitioned Kyrgyzstan from a parliamentary to a presidential system, and implemented changes that allow the president to serve for two 5-year terms rather than one 6-year term, reduced the number of seats in Kyrgyzstan's legislature from 120 to 90, and established a Kurultay - a public advisory council

amendments: proposed as a draft law by the majority of the Supreme Council membership or by petition of 300,000 voters; passage requires at least two-thirds majority vote of the Council membership in each of at least three readings of the draft two months apart; the draft may be submitted to a referendum if approved by two thirds of the Council membership; adoption requires the signature of the president
Independence 31 August 1991 (from the Soviet Union)

Kyrgyzstan Video

CountryReports YouTube Channel:

Join CountryReports YouTube Channel (Click Here)

Kyrgyzstan Geography

What environmental issues does Kyrgyzstan have?

Overview The Kyrgyz Republic is a Central Asian country of natural beauty and proud nomadic traditions. Occupying a strategic location on the Silk Road, its territory is one of the most ancient centers of human civilization, as documented in Chinese, Arabic, Iranian, and Turkish written sources. Bishkek (formerly Frunze), the capital, and Osh are the principal cities.

The Kyrgyz Republic is a country of sunshine, high, snow-covered mountains, deep gorges cut by swift rivers and 1,923 mountain lakes. In the summer months, travelers can spend part of a single day in a sunny valley, in a flowering meadow high in the mountains, and in glaciers above the clouds. Extensive mountain ranges featuring ridges, deep gorges, wide valleys, and virgin forests are complemented by more than 40,000 rivers and streams that provide irrigation and a vast potential for hydroelectric production.

The Tien Shan and Pamir mountain ranges dominate 65% of the country, and the average elevation is 2,750 meters, ranging from 394 meters in the Fergana Valley to 7,439 meters (24,409 feet) at Pik Pobedy (Mount Victory). It is estimated that the Kyrgyz Republic’s 6,500 distinct glaciers hold more than 650 billion cubic meters of water. The alpine regions provide rich pastures for sheep, goats, cattle, horses, and yaks. The main agricultural regions are the Chui River valley in the North and the Fergana Valley in the South. Over half of the cultivated area is irrigated, and cotton, sugar, beets, silk, tobacco, fruit, grapes, and grains are among the main crops. There are gold, coal, antimony, lead, tungsten, mercury, uranium, petroleum, and natural gas deposits, and industries include food processing and the manufacture of agricultural machinery and textiles. The country is lightly forested with woods covering about 3.5% of the country. However, forests in the south of the Kyrgyz Republic include the largest wild nut (walnut) groves on earth.

Climate The Kyrgyz Republic is positioned near the middle of the Eurasian landmass, and there is no body of water large enough to influence weather patterns. Those factors create a distinctly continental climate that has significant local variations. Although the mountains tend to collect clouds and block sunlight (reducing some narrow valleys at certain times of year to no more than three or four hours of sunlight per day), the country is generally sunny, receiving as much as 2,900 hours of sunlight per year in some areas. The same conditions also affect temperatures, which can vary significantly from place to place. In January the warmest average temperature (24.8°F, -4°C) occurs around the southern city of Osh, and around Lake Issyk-Kul. The latter, which has a volume of 416 cubic miles (1738 cubic kilometers), does not freeze in winter. Indeed, its name means "hot lake" in Kyrgyz. The coldest temperatures are in mountain valleys. There, readings can fall to -22°F (30°C) or lower; the record is -64°F (-53.6°C) . The average temperature for July similarly varies from 81°F (27°C) in the Fergana Valley, where the record high is 111°F (44°C) , to a low of 14°F (-10°C) on the highest mountain peaks. Precipitation varies from 79 inches per year in the mountains above the Fergana Valley to less than 4 inches per year on the west bank of Issyk-Kul. Bishkek's weather is fairly mild. In Bishkek, nighttime temperatures in January can be in the teens (Fahrenheit), but daytime temperatures often rise to above freezing, enough for snow and ice to begin melting. Summer temperatures can rise above 90°F (32°C) by the end of May. The air is dry year round.
Border Countries China 858 km, Kazakhstan 1,051 km, Tajikistan 870 km, Uzbekistan 1,099 km
Environment - Current Issues water pollution; many people get their water directly from contaminated streams and wells; as a result, water-borne diseases are prevalent; increasing soil salinity from faulty irrigation practices
Environment - International Agreements party to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Terrain peaks of Tien Shan and associated valleys and basins encompass entire nation

Kyrgyzstan Economy

How big is the Kyrgyzstan economy?

Economic Overview Kyrgyzstan is a landlocked, mountainous, lower middle income country with an economy dominated by minerals extraction, agriculture, and reliance on remittances from citizens working abroad. Cotton, wool, and meat are the main agricultural products, although only cotton is exported in any quantity. Other exports include gold, mercury, uranium, natural gas, and - in some years - electricity. The country has sought to attract foreign investment to expand its export base, including construction of hydroelectric dams, but a difficult investment climate and an ongoing legal battle with a Canadian firm over the joint ownership structure of the nation’s largest gold mine deter potential investors. Remittances from Kyrgyz migrant workers, predominantly in Russia and Kazakhstan, are equivalent to more than one-quarter of Kyrgyzstan’s GDP.

Following independence, Kyrgyzstan rapidly implemented market reforms, such as improving the regulatory system and instituting land reform. In 1998, Kyrgyzstan was the first Commonwealth of Independent States country to be accepted into the World Trade Organization. The government has privatized much of its ownership shares in public enterprises. Despite these reforms, the country suffered a severe drop in production in the early 1990s and has again faced slow growth in recent years as the global financial crisis and declining oil prices have dampened economies across Central Asia. The Kyrgyz government remains dependent on foreign donor support to finance its annual budget deficit of approximately 3 to 5% of GDP.

Kyrgyz leaders hope the country’s August 2015 accession to the Eurasian Economic Union (EAEU) will bolster trade and investment, but slowing economies in Russia and China and low commodity prices continue to hamper economic growth. Large-scale trade and investment pledged by Kyrgyz leaders has been slow to develop. Many Kyrgyz entrepreneurs and politicians complain that non-tariff measures imposed by other EAEU member states are hurting certain sectors of the Kyrgyz economy, such as meat and dairy production, in which they have comparative advantage. Since acceding to the EAEU, the Kyrgyz Republic has continued harmonizing its laws and regulations to meet EAEU standards, though many local entrepreneurs believe this process as disjointed and incomplete. Kyrgyzstan’s economic development continues to be hampered by corruption, lack of administrative transparency, lack of diversity in domestic industries, and difficulty attracting foreign aid and investment.
Industries small machinery, textiles, food processing, cement, shoes, sawn logs, refrigerators, furniture, electric motors, gold, rare earth metals
Currency Name and Code Som (KWD)
Export Partners Switzerland 19.8%, Russia 16.5%, UAE 14.2%, China 8.4%, Kazakhstan 7.6%, US 7.4%, Uzbekistan 5.8%
Import Partners Kazakhstan 21.1%, Russia 19.9%, Uzbekistan 10.2%, China 10.1%, US 8%, Germany 5.3%

Kyrgyzstan News and Current Events

What current events are happening in Kyrgyzstan?
Source: Google News

Kyrgyzstan Travel Information

What makes Kyrgyzstan a unique country to travel to?

Country Description

The Kyrgyz Republic is a mountainous country of 5.5 million people. In April 2010, violence led to the collapse of the previous government and the subsequent formation of a provisional government. In June 2010, inter-ethnic violence killed hundreds of people and wounded thousands in the south of the country. The provisional government successfully held a constitutional referendum in June and parliamentary elections took place without violence in October 2010. A new government was formed on December 17, 2010. The country held competitive presidential elections in October 2011, and President Atambayev took office on December 1, 2011. Though the referendum and both elections took place without incident, unrest and ethnic tensions could flare up unexpectedly.

Despite recent economic growth and modest natural resources, the country grapples with substantial poverty, and the tourist industry is not highly developed. Air and land travel internally and to neighboring countries is limited and can be subject to delays due to infrastructure shortcomings and winter weather. Rural and urban areas are subject to power, natural gas, and water outages, leaving many homes without running water, heat, or electricity at times.


The U.S. Embassy advises U.S. citizens to exercise caution in urban areas of the Kyrgyz Republic due to the high rate of violent crime against foreigners. There have been reports of violent muggings of foreigners in downtown Bishkek at night. Other common crimes include auto theft and pick pocketing in crowded places such as markets, internet cafes, and on public transportation.

After dark, travelers should not take public transportation or walk outside and should be extremely cautious in or near hotels, bars, parks, and all places that attract an expatriate clientele. The U.S. Embassy advises its employees to avoid the use of unlicensed cabs and recommends using only radio dispatched taxis. Travelers arriving at Manas International Airport should arrange their transportation from the airport in advance. There have been reports of U.S. citizens who were robbed by groups of young men who had followed them back to their residences from hotels and bars. In addition, U.S. citizens have been victims of rape, assault, and kidnapping in the past in the Kyrgyz Republic. Police officers rarely speak English and there are no victims’ assistance programs available. Medical care and counseling services for victims are limited.

Harassment and extortion by people who purport to be Kyrgyz police officers take place occasionally. According to Kyrgyz law, any person claiming to be a police officer must show identifying documents on demand. U.S. citizens should not act upon requests by people, whether in civilian dress or in police uniform, if they have no official identification. U.S. citizens also should not get into cars with anyone they do not know, even if the person claims to be a police officer.

Don’t buy counterfeit and pirated goods, even if they are widely available. Not only are the bootlegs illegal in the United States, if you purchase them you may be breaking local law. You could be prosecuted under U.S. law for pirated goods you purchased in the Kyrgyz Republic.

Criminal Penalties

While you are traveling in the Kyrgyz Republic, you are subject to its laws even if you are a U.S. citizen. Foreign laws and legal systems can be vastly different than our own. In some places you may be taken in for questioning if you don’t have your passport with you. In some places, it is illegal to take pictures of certain buildings. In some places, driving under the influence could land you immediately in jail. These criminal penalties will vary from country to country. There are also some things that might be legal in the country you visit, but still illegal in the United States, and you can be prosecuted under U.S. law if you buy pirated goods. Engaging in sexual conduct with children or using or disseminating child pornography in a foreign country is a crime prosecutable in the United States. If you break local laws in the Kyrgyz Republic, your U.S. passport won’t help you avoid arrest or prosecution. It’s very important to know what’s legal and what’s not wherever you go. .

In the Kyrgyz Republic, you may be taken in by police for questioning if you do not have your passport with you. Driving under the influence of alcohol, no matter how little you consumed, is considered a serious offense.

Persons violating Kyrgyz Republic laws, even unknowingly, may be expelled, arrested, or imprisoned. Penalties for possessing, using, or trafficking in illegal drugs in the Kyrgyz Republic are severe, and convicted offenders can expect long jail sentences and heavy fines.

While some countries will automatically notify the nearest U.S. embassy or consulate if a U.S. citizen is detained or arrested in a foreign country, that might not always be the case. To ensure that the United States is aware of your circumstances, request that the police and prison officials notify the nearest U.S. embassy or consulate as soon as you are arrested or detained overseas.

Medical Facilities and Health Information

Medical services in the Kyrgyz Republic are extremely limited. Elderly travelers and those with existing health problems may be at risk due to inadequate medical facilities. Medications such as insulin and pain medications that are commonly available elsewhere may not be available in the Kyrgyz Republic or may be restricted. The U.S. Embassy strongly recommends that travelers to the Kyrgyz Republic carry medical evacuation insurance in case of emergency.

Safety and Security

Bishkek is a large city of 1.1 million people. The greatest threats to tourists and travelers are traffic accidents and street crime. That said, the country continues to stabilize itself after the violence of 2010. Terrorism is an enduring threat, especially in the southern part of the country.

The Department of State suggests that U.S. citizens limit travel to the Batken Oblast where violence broke out several times in recent years. Ethnic, political, and socio-economic tensions continue to exist in southern Kyrgyzstan, including the cities of Osh and Jalalabad, the second and third largest cities in Kyrgyzstan, although there have been no widespread incidents of violence since 2010. As of December 2012, however, the immediate threat of violence appears to have subsided in the south, although ethnic, political, and socio-economic tensions continue to exist.

Travel of U.S. government employees to Batken is currently restricted. Land mines in Batken Oblast and near the Kyrgyz-Tajik border continue to be a concern. Areas along the Kyrgyz-Uzbek and Kyrgyz-Tajik borders continue to have small, but sometimes violent and deadly, skirmishes between border guards on both sides, and often include civilians. Organized crime and narcotics trafficking are widespread in southern Kyrgyzstan.

In late 2010, Kyrgyz security forces carried out a series of operations against groups the government claims are Islamic extremists seeking to destabilize the country. These security operations resulted in the death or arrest of several suspects, and several members of the Kyrgyz security forces. These militants are blamed for carrying out a home invasion, planting a car bomb near a Bishkek police station, and detonating an improvised explosive device outside the venue of a large trial in downtown Bishkek resulting in some property damage and minor injuries.

In late November 2010, Kyrgyz Special Forces mounted an operation against suspected terrorists in Osh, resulting in the deaths of all four suspects and the wounding of two special-forces officers. In October 2012, the Kyrgyz government also arrested five individuals with alleged ties to terrorists and extremist groups. Additionally, Kyrgyz security officials found and confiscated large caches of weapons, including machine guns and explosive materials.

Though the situation is now relatively stable, demonstrations can break out without advance notice. During times of political unrest, demonstrators often gather in front of the Presidential Administration building (White House), the Parliament, and on Alatoo Square in Bishkek’s city center. The Embassy does not always have advance information regarding demonstrations. All U.S. citizens are reminded to avoid the vicinity of any protests, because even protests that are intended to be peaceful can turn confrontational and possibly escalate into violence.

Traffic Safety and Road Conditions

While in the Kyrgyz Republic, you may encounter road conditions that differ significantly from those in the United States. Accidents involving severe injury and/or death are not uncommon. Drunk driving and hit-and-run accidents are significant problems and drivers should exercise particular caution and use defensive driving techniques, especially at night and on holidays. In the event of an accident where there is an injury, emergency medical assistance may be very slow to respond. Even if medical assistance does arrive in a timely manner, treatment and facilities available at local clinics may not meet U.S. standards.

Most of the Kyrgyz Republic’s road infrastructure consists of two-lane roads, many of which have fallen into disrepair and are poorly marked and lit. Many local drivers disobey fundamental traffic laws by not stopping at red lights, driving while intoxicated, passing vehicles when it is dangerous or prohibited to do so, or not stopping for pedestrians at crosswalks and intersections.

Drivers must exercise particular caution to avoid uneven pavement, potholes, open drains, and uncovered manholes. Night driving should be avoided, as roads are inadequately lit. In winter, roads are seldom plowed and ice and snow make the poor driving conditions even more hazardous. Pedestrians routinely walk in the road, often wearing dark clothes at night. Mountain roads in the Kyrgyz Republic are often narrow and treacherous, and may close without notice due to snow, ice, or rockslides. Guardrails and barriers preventing falling rocks are often missing. Driving through mountain passes in the winter can be very dangerous. The Kyrgyz Republic does not have a roadside assistance infrastructure. Towing companies do not exist. Although mechanics are available in cities there is little organized oversight or certification of their practices or abilities. Rest areas are infrequent and basic. Service stations are generally available in and near cities, but the fuel they provide may be adulterated or of poor quality.

The road between Almaty, Kazakhstan, and Bishkek, Kyrgyz Republic, is especially unsafe at night or during poor weather. Travel on this route after dark by U.S. Embassy personnel is restricted.

The legal blood alcohol level for driving in the Kyrgyz Republic is zero. Generally, speed limits are 60 km per hour in the cities and 90 km per hour in rural areas. Kyrgyz law mandates that all automobile passengers wear seat belts and that motorcycle riders wear helmets. International driving permits are recognized in the Kyrgyz Republic.

Drivers may face harassment by traffic police, who have been known to demand payment of arbitrary "fines" for purported infractions. According to Kyrgyz law, payment of traffic fines must be made at local banks rather than directly to the traffic police.

Public transportation in the Kyrgyz Republic is limited to buses, taxis, and very few intercity trains. Travelers should be particularly careful when using public transportation. Buses tend to be very crowded and can be unsafe and unreliable. Taxis too can be dangerous. Due to the danger of theft or assault, travelers should avoid entering a cab that already contains passengers. Taxis are seldom metered, and travelers should negotiate a fare prior to entering a cab and be aware that cab drivers often try to charge foreigners a high fare. Drivers of vehicles that are not taxis are often willing to drive people for fares. However, U.S. citizens should avoid using these "private taxis" and unmarked taxis.

All Countries
Afghanistan Akrotiri Albania Algeria American Samoa Andorra Angola Anguilla Antarctica Antigua and Barbuda Argentina Armenia Aruba Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bahamas Bahrain Bangladesh Barbados Belarus Belgium Belize Benin Bermuda Bhutan Bolivia Bosnia and Herzegovina Botswana Brazil British Indian Ocean Territory British Virgin Islands Brunei Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burma Burundi Cabo Verde Cambodia Cameroon Canada Cayman Islands Central African Republic Chad Chile China Christmas Island Clipperton Island Cocos (Keeling) Islands Colombia Comoros Congo, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Republic of the Cook Islands Coral Sea Islands Costa Rica Cote d’Ivoire Croatia Cuba Curacao Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Dhekelia Djibouti Dominica Dominican Republic Ecuador Egypt El Salvador Equatorial Guinea Eritrea Estonia Eswatini Ethiopia Falkland Islands Faroe Islands Fiji Finland France French Guiana French Polynesia Gabon Gambia, The Gaza Strip Georgia Germany Ghana Gibraltar Greece Greenland Grenada Guadeloupe Guam Guatemala Guernsey Guinea Guinea-Bissau Guyana Haiti Holy See Honduras Hong Kong Hungary Iceland India Indonesia Iran Iraq Ireland Isle of Man Israel Italy Jamaica Jan Mayen Japan Jersey Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya Kiribati Korea, North Korea, South Kosovo Kuwait Kyrgyzstan Laos Latvia Lebanon Lesotho Liberia Libya Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Macau Madagascar Malawi Malaysia Maldives Mali Malta Marshall Islands Martinique Mauritania Mauritius Mayotte Mexico Micronesia Moldova Monaco Mongolia Montenegro Montserrat Morocco Mozambique Namibia Nauru Nepal Netherlands New Caledonia New Zealand Nicaragua Niger Nigeria Niue Norfolk Island North Macedonia Northern Mariana Islands Norway Oman Pakistan Palau Panama Papua New Guinea Paraguay Peru Philippines Pitcairn Islands Poland Portugal Puerto Rico Qatar Reunion Romania Russia Rwanda Saint Helena, Ascension, and Tristan da Cunha Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint Lucia Saint Pierre and Miquelon Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Samoa San Marino Sao Tome and Principe Saudi Arabia Senegal Serbia Seychelles Sierra Leone Singapore Slovakia Slovenia Solomon Islands Somalia South Africa Spain Sri Lanka Sudan Sudan, South Suriname Svalbard Sweden Switzerland Syria Taiwan Tajikistan Tanzania Thailand Timor-Leste Togo Tokelau Tonga Trinidad and Tobago Tunisia Turkey Turkmenistan Turks and Caicos Islands Tuvalu Uganda Ukraine United Arab Emirates United Kingdom United States (US) Uruguay Uzbekistan Vanuatu Venezuela Vietnam Virgin Islands Wake Island Wallis and Futuna West Bank Western Sahara World Yemen Zambia Zimbabwe