The climate throughout Kazakhstan is continental and dry, and there are four distinct seasons. The weather in Almaty is very moderate, and consecutive rainy days are rare. Winter temperatures and snowfall are rarely extreme (i.e., rarely below 0°F), and the wind is light. During the 4-5-month summer average high temperatures are usually in the low to mid-80's F. "Golden Fall," is perhaps the most pleasant season, particularly in Almaty, with brilliantly clear, dry days, colorful autumn leaves, and pleasant temperatures.
In Astana strong winds, long winters, and December-January temperatures periodically fall below 0°F. The summers are generally dry and sunny, but the weather changes rapidly and it is not uncommon to have a rainy morning followed by a sunny afternoon. Average summer highs in Astana are in the low 80's.
extends from the Volga to the Altai Mountains and from the plains in western Siberia to oases and desert in Central Asia
major deposits of petroleum, natural gas, coal, iron ore, manganese, chrome ore, nickel, cobalt, copper, molybdenum, lead, zinc, bauxite, gold, uranium
earthquakes in the south, mudslides around Almaty
7,977 Square Miles
20,660 Square Kilometers
radioactive or toxic chemical sites associated with former defense industries and test ranges scattered throughout the country pose health risks for humans and animals; industrial pollution is severe in some cities; because the two main rivers which flowed into the Aral Sea have been diverted for irrigation, it is drying up and leaving behind a harmful layer of chemical pesticides and natural salts; these substances are then picked up by the wind and blown into noxious dust storms; pollution in the Caspian Sea; soil pollution from overuse of agricultural chemicals and salination from poor infrastructure and wasteful irrigation practices
Environment - International Agreements:
party to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol