Iraq Government

What is the capital of Iraq?

Country Name Iraq
Full Country Name Republic of Iraq
Local - Long Jumhuriyat al-Iraq/Komar-i Eraq
Local - Short Al Iraq/Eraq
Former Name Mesopotamia, Mandatory Iraq, Hashemite Kingdom of Iraq
Etymology- history of name the name probably derives from "Uruk" (Biblical "Erech"), the ancient Sumerian and Babylonian city on the Euphrates River
Government Type federal parliamentary republic
Capital Name Baghdad
Capital - geographic coordinate 33 20 N, 44 24 E
Capital Time Difference UTC+3 (8 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Independence 3 October 1932 (from League of Nations mandate under British administration); note - on 28 June 2004 the Coalition Provisional Authority transferred sovereignty to the Iraqi Interim Government
National Holiday Independence Day, 3 October (1932); Republic Day, 14 July (1958)
Constitution history: several previous; latest adopted by referendum 15 October 2005

amendments: proposed by the president of the republic and the Council of Minsters collectively, or by one fifth of the Council of Representatives members; passage requires at least two-thirds majority vote by the Council of Representatives, approval by referendum, and ratification by the president; passage of amendments to articles on citizen rights and liberties requires two-thirds majority vote of Council of Representatives members after two successive electoral terms, approval in a referendum, and ratification by the president

Iraq Capital City Map

Source: Google Maps

Iraq Government and Politics

Who is the president of Iraq?

Executive Branch: chief of state: President Latif RASHID (since 13 October 2022); vice presidents (vacant)

head of government: Prime Minister Mohammed Shia al-SUDANI (since 27 October 2022)

cabinet: Council of Ministers proposed by the prime minister, approved by Council of Representatives (COR)

elections/appointments: president indirectly elected by COR to serve a 4-year term (eligible for a second term); COR parliamentary election for president last held on 13 October 2022 (next to be held NA)

election results:

2022: Latif RASHID elected president in second round; COR vote in first round - Latif RASHID (PUK) 157, Barham SALIH (PUK) 99; COR vote in second round - Latif RASHID 167, Barham SALIH 99; Mohammed Shia' al-SUDANI approved as prime minister

2018: Barham SALIH elected president in second round; COR vote in first round - Barham SALIH (PUK) 165, Fuad HUSAYN (KDP) 90; COR vote in second round - Barham SALIH 219, Fuad HUSAYN 22; Adil ABD AL-MAHDI approved as prime minister
Citizenship Criteria: citizenship by birth: no

citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Iraq

dual citizenship recognized: yes

residency requirement for naturalization: 10 years
Legal System: mixed legal system of civil and Islamic law
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
Legislative Branch: description: unicameral Council of Representatives of Iraq (COR) or Majlis an-Nuwwab al-Iraqiyy (329 seats; 320 members directly elected in 83 multi-seat constituencies by single nontransferable vote, 9 seats elected by religious minorities - 5 by Christians, 1 each by Sabaean-Mandaeans, Yazidis, Shabaks andFayli Kurds, and 25% of seats allocated to women; members serve 4-year terms)

elections: last held on 10 October 2021 (next to be held in 2025)

election results: percent of vote by party/coalition - NA; seats by party -Taqadum 47, State of Law Coalition 43, Al Fatah Alliance 37, Kurdistan Democratic Party 31, Kurdistan Coalition 18, Azm Alliance 16, Imtidad 16, State Forces Alliance 11, Ishraqat Kanun 10, New Generation Movement 9, National Contract Party 8, Tasmim Alliance 7, Babiliyun Movement 3, other 73; composition - men 234, women 95, percent of women 28.9%

note - seat counts reflect updated numbers after the Sadrist Trend withdrew from government formation and its 73 seats were reallocated to other parties
Judicial Branch: highest court(s): Federal Supreme Court or FSC (consists of 9 judges); note - court jurisdiction limited to constitutional issues, application of federal laws, ratification of election results for the COR, judicial competency disputes, and disputes between regions or governorates and the central government; Court of Cassation (consists of a court president, 5 vice presidents, and at least 24 judges)

judge selection and term of office: Federal Supreme Court (FSC) judges nominated by the High Judicial Council (HJC) president, the FSC chief justice, the public prosecutor's office chief, and the head of the Judicial Oversight Commission; FSC members required to retire at age 72; Court of Cassation judges appointed by the HJC and confirmed by the Council of Representatives to serve until retirement, nominally at age 63, but can be extended to age 66 by the HJC

subordinate courts: Courts of Appeal (governorate level); civil courts, including first instance, personal status, labor, and customs; criminal courts including felony, misdemeanor, investigative, major crimes, juvenile, and traffic courts
Regions or States: 18 governorates (muhafazat, singular - muhafazah (Arabic); parezgakan, singular - parezga (Kurdish)); 'Al Anbar; Al Basrah; Al Muthanna; Al Qadisiyah (Ad Diwaniyah); An Najaf; Arbil (Erbil) (Arabic), Hewler (Kurdish); As Sulaymaniyah (Arabic), Slemani (Kurdish); Babil; Baghdad; Dahuk (Arabic), Dihok (Kurdish); Dhi Qar; Diyala; Karbala'; Kirkuk; Maysan; Ninawa; Salah ad Din; Wasit

note: Iraq's Kurdistan Regional Government administers Arbil, Dahuk, and As Sulaymaniyah (as Hewler, Dihok, and Slemani respectively)
Political Parties and Leaders: Al Fatah Alliance [Hadi al-AMIRI]

Azm Alliance [Khamis al-KHANJAR]

Babiliyun Movement [Rayan al-KILDANI]

Imtidad [Ala al-RIKABI]

Ishraqat Konun [Jaafar AZIZ]

Kurdistan Democratic Party F [Masud BARZANI]

National Contract Party [Falih al-FAYYAD]

New Generation Movement [SHASWAR Abd al-Wahid Qadir]

Patriotic Union of Kurdistan [Bafel TALABANI]

Sadrist Bloc [Muqtada al-SADR]

State Forces Alliance [Haydar al-ABADI]

State of Law Coalition [Nuri al-MALIKI]

Taqadum [Muhammad al-HALBUSI]

Tasmim Alliance [Asad al-IDANI]

numerous smaller independent, religious, local, tribal, and minority parties
International Law Organization Participation: has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt
Diplomatic Representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Nazar Issa Abdulhadi AL-KHIRULLAH (since 30 June 2023)

chancery: 1801 P Street NW, Washington, DC 20036

telephone: [1] (202) 483-7500

FAX: [1] (202) 462-8815

email address and website:

consulate(s) general: Detroit, Los Angeles
Diplomatic Representation from US: chief of mission: Ambassador Alina L. ROMANOWSKI (since 2 June 2022)

embassy: Al-Kindi Street, International Zone, Baghdad; note - consulate in Al Basrah closed as of 28 September 2018

mailing address: 6060 Baghdad Place, Washington DC 20521-6060

telephone: 0760-030-3000

email address and website:
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