Indonesia Demographics

What is the population of Indonesia?

Population 267,026,366
Population Growth Rate 0.99%
Urban Population 50.7%
Population in Major Urban Areas JAKARTA (capital) 9.769 million; Surabaya 2.787 million; Bandung 2.429 million; Medan 2.118 million; Semarang 1.573 million; Palembang 1.455 million
Nationality Noun Indonesian(s)
Nationality Adjective Indonesian
Ethnic Groups Javanese 45%, Sundanese 14%, Madurese 7.5%, coastal Malays 7.5%, other 26%
Languages Spoken Bahasa Indonesia (official, modified form of Malay), English, Dutch, local dialects
Language Note The official language is Indonesian (a variety of Malay). However, some 300 other languages are also spoken in the country. One of them, Javanese is the most common with more than 70 million speakers. More than half the population speaks some Indonesian or Malay. Because Dutch was the official language until 1942, some older adults still speak it. English is the leading international language and is taught as a second language in the schools (after Indonesian). Ethnic languages are taught in special classes.

Indonesia Health Information

What are the health conditions in Indonesia?

Contraceptive Prevalance Rate - female 15-49 61.9%
Death Rate - deaths/1,000 population 6.31
Diseases - note highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza has been identified in this country; it poses a negligible risk with extremely rare cases possible among US citizens who have close contact with birds
Drinking Water Source - percent of rural population improved 76.4%
Drinking Water Source - percent of total population unimproved 15.1%
Drinking Water Source - percent of urban population improved 93%
Food or Waterborne Disease (s) bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
Health Expenditures - percent of GDP 2.7%
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate 0.2%
HIV/Aids Deaths 26,800
Hospital Bed Density - beds/1,000 population .6
Infant Mortality Rate - female deaths/1,000 live births 21.42
Infant Mortality Rate - male deaths/1,000 live births 30.47
Infant Mortality Rate - total deaths/1,000 live births 26.06
Major Infectious Diseases - degree of risk very high
Maternal Mortality Rate - deaths/100,000 live births 220
Mean Age for Mother's First Birth 22.8
People Living with HIV/AIDS 310,000
Physicians Density - physicians/1,000 population .2
Sanitation Facility Access - percent of total population unimproved 41.2%
Sanitation Facility Access - percent of urban population improved 71.4%
Sanitation Facitlity Access - percent of rural population improved 45.5%
Total Fertility Rate - children born/woman 2.2
Underweight - percent of children under five years 18.6%
Vectorborne Disease (s) dengue fever and malaria

Indonesia Life Expectancy

How long do people live in Indonesia?

Life Expectancy at Birth 71 Years
Life Expectancy at Birth - female 74 Years
Life Expectancy at Birth - male 69 Years
Median Age 28 Years
Median Age - female 29 Years
Median Age - male 28 Years

Indonesia Infant Mortality - per 1,000 live births

Indonesia median age, birth rate and death rates

Birth Rate - births/1,000 population 17
Death Rate - deaths/1,000 population 6.31
Median Age 28 Years
Median Age - female 29 Years
Median Age - male 28 Years
Net Migration Rate - migrant(s)/1,000 population -1.19
Population Growth Rate 0.99%
Sex Ratio 0-14 Years - male/female 1.04
Sex Ratio 15-24 Years - male/female 1.04
Sex Ratio 25-54 Years - male/female 1.03
Sex Ratio 55-64 Years - male/female 1
Sex Ratio at Birth - male/female 1.05
Sex Ratio of Total Population - male/female 1
Sex Ratio Over 64 Years - male/female .78

Indonesia Medical Information

What are the health conditions in Indonesia?

Medical Facilities and Health Information

The general level of sanitation and health care in Indonesia is far below U.S. standards. Some routine medical care is available in all major cities, although most expatriates leave the country for all but the simplest medical procedures. Psychological and psychiatric services are limited throughout Indonesia. Medical procedures requiring hospitalization and/or medical evacuation to locations with acceptable medical care, such as Singapore, Australia, or the United States can cost thousands of dollars. Physicians and hospitals often expect immediate cash payment or sizable deposits before offering medical care. A non-exhaustive list of English-speaking doctors and hospitals is accessible via the U.S. Embassy Jakarta's website. Many places in Indonesia are inaccessible to the physically handicapped. Sidewalks tend to be uneven and difficult to navigate, and many buildings do not have elevators.

Ambulance services are individually run by hospitals and clinics. Indonesian ambulance attendants lack paramedical training equivalent to U.S. standards, and there is no reliable emergency ambulance service in Indonesia. If you are staying in Indonesia for an extended period, especially if you have known health problems, you are advised to investigate private ambulance services in your area, and to provide family and close contacts with the direct telephone number(s) of the preferred service. Traffic congestion is a significant problem in urban Indonesia and roads are generally in poor condition in rural Indonesia, so ambulance transport, if it exists at all, even over short distances can take hours.

Community sanitation and public health programs are inadequate throughout Indonesia and subject to frequent breakdowns. Water and air pollution and traffic congestion have rapidly increased with the unstructured growth of major cities. Almost all maladies of the developing world are endemic to Indonesia, and immediate treatment is problematic. Residents are subject to water- and food-borne illnesses such as typhoid, hepatitis, cholera, worms, amebiasis, giardia, cyclospora, and bacterial dysentery.

Mosquito-borne dengue fever and tuberculosis exist throughout Indonesia and have been serious in Jakarta. Indonesia has the highest incidence of dengue fever in Asia, which is caused by several species of mosquitoes biting during the day. Multiple drug-resistant strains of malaria are endemic in some parts of Indonesia but not in metropolitan Jakarta, Medan, Surabaya, and Bali; even short stays can be disastrous without malaria prophylaxis. Precautions against being bitten – such as mosquito repellent, wearing long sleeves, and sleeping under a bed net are all recommended. Malaria prophylaxis is highly recommended for travel to malaria-endemic areas outside major cities. Travelers to Sulawesi should be tested for schistosomiasis.

Asthma and other respiratory difficulties are common and generally worse in Jakarta than in other areas, exacerbated by the high pollution levels. Indonesia has one of the highest prevalence of tuberculosis, which is transmitted through the air, shared smoking devices, and particularly in densely crowded areas. Precautions include wearing a face mask when in crowded areas, and having a PPD test after departure. Skin allergies are also common. Avian (H5N1), swine (H1N1) influenza, and seasonal influenza (H2N3) are endemic in Indonesia all year with peaks during the rainy season (November- April). Influenza vaccination may be helpful to reduce instances of seasonal flu (H2N3). High risk areas for highly pathogenic avian influenza (H5N1) are live-bird markets around the greater Jakarta area. Current information about influenza in Indonesia can be found on Flu Net ( http://www.who.int/influenza/gisrs_laboratory/flunet/en/ ). Rabies is endemic in Indonesia, but extensive dog vaccination has reduced cases in Bali by almost 80% with a possibility for elimination by the end of 2012; other islands in East Nusa Tenggara (NTT) and Sumatra still pose risks for rabies. Rabies is a highly fatal disease and treatment availability is very limited. If bitten, immediately seek treatment at a reputable medical clinic or hospital. If you will spend time in rural areas while in Indonesia the CDC recommends rabies vaccination. Indonesia has been polio-free since 2007. Travelers are urged to consult with their personal physicians and to get updated information on prevalent diseases before traveling to Indonesia. Travelers should be current on all recommended immunizations; those planning on traveling extensively should consider the series of three pre-exposure inoculations against rabies. Local pharmacies carry a range of products of variable quality, availability, and cost. Counterfeit pharmaceuticals are a significant risk and U.S. citizens should patronize only reputable pharmacies.

Tap water is not potable. In 2008, Indonesian authorities found that 100 percent of tap water samples from the Jakarta area tested positive for coliform bacteria, as well as high concentrations of toxic chemicals, including lead and mercury. Bottled water should be used for consumption, including for cooking. Factory bottled soft drinks, and juices and milk sold in sealed containers are generally safe. Take extra care preparing fresh fruits, vegetables, and meats. If you cannot see refrigerators, expect that any food, especially street food, is preserved with high concentrations of formaldehyde derivatives. Consider that unprocessed or raw food may be unsafe even in higher end establishments. Washing, soaking, peeling, and/or thoroughly cooking food are mandatory procedures to minimize insecticide, bacterial, and parasitic contamination. Gastrointestinal disorders are common. A wide variety of foods are available in local markets and supermarkets, and with some care and effort, it is possible to eat a well-balanced diet.

Frequent hand washing, using hand sanitizer, wearing mosquito repellent, not eating street food, and drinking only bottled beverages are some ways to stay healthy while traveling.

Car and motorcycle accidents are the primary causes of severe injury to foreigners living and traveling in Indonesia. Defensive driving and use of seatbelts are encouraged. Use of motorcycles and bicycling in traffic are both discouraged. Rh negative blood may be difficult to obtain in an area with very few Westerners. Therefore, it is important to know your blood type and recognize that scarcity may be a problem.

Updated information and links to the World Health Organization (WHO) and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) are posted on the U.S. Embassy Jakarta's website.

Information on vaccinations and other health precautions, such as safe food and water precautions and insect bite protection, may be obtained from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC) hotline for international travelers at 1-877-FYI-TRIP (1-877-394-8747) or via the CDC website.

Indonesia Education

What is school like in Indonesia?

Education Expenditures - percent of GDP 2.8%
Literacy - female 83.4%
Literacy - male 92.5%
Literacy - total population 90.4%
Literacy Definition age 15 and over can read and write
School Life Expectancy - female 13 Years
School Life Expectancy - male 13 Years
Total School Life Expectancy - (primary to tertiary) 13 Years

Indonesia Literacy

Can people in Indonesia read?

Literacy - female 83.4%
Literacy - male 92.5%
Literacy - total population 90.4%
Literacy Definition age 15 and over can read and write
Predominant Language Bahasa Indonesia (official, modified form of Malay), English, Dutch, local dialects

Indonesia Crime

Is Indonesia a safe place to visit?

Crime Information

Crime can be a problem in some major metropolitan areas in Indonesia. Crimes of opportunity such as pick-pocketing and theft occur throughout the country. If you are in Jakarta and Surabaya, hire a taxi either at a major hotel or shopping center queue, or by calling or hailing a reputable taxi company, such as Silver Bird, Blue Bird or White Express. If you are arriving at Soekarno-Hatta International Airport in Jakarta, use only these taxis obtained at a designated taxi queue or clearly marked taxi stand. Politely decline all offers of help from touts or anyone who approaches you. Major hotels have staff on duty to offer safe meet-and-greet service at airports and can also direct their hotel guests to a reliable taxi. It is best to request meet and greet services from your hotel in advance. Add about 25,000 Rupiah to the metered fare for required airport taxes and toll road fees. Depending on traffic, a minimum metered fare is 150,000-200,000 Rupiah from Soekarno-Hatta airport to central Jakarta. Criminals in Jakarta regularly rob customers in taxis painted to look like taxis from reputable companies; booking taxis by telephone directly from the company or through hotels is the best way to avoid falling victim to this scam.

Armed car-jacking, theft of vehicles and non-violent residential break-ins do occur in Indonesia. Personal and "snatch-and-grab" robberies are the most common type of crime, and have occurred regularly, to include targeting expatriates and embassy personnel. There continue to be crimes committed against people taking disreputable and freelance taxis. These types of crimes usually involve the driver taking his passenger(s) - usually women - to a remote area where a group of armed men rob them of their jewelry, cell phones, money and any other items of value such as ATM cards and force the victim(s) to reveal his or her PIN codes so that the assailants could obtain cash. In a few instances, the criminals drove with the victim in the taxi to an ATM machine and forced them to withdraw cash. Visitors to Indonesia should use only reputable taxi companies and avoid public mass transit platforms such as buses and trains. Pick pocketing is another crime that both locals and visitors fall victim to, with most pick pocketing occurring in crowded areas such as the mass transit system or in restaurants/bars. Indonesian police have noted an upward trend in burglaries and armed robberies in Jakarta, an increase of 25 percent in 2010, particularly in wealthier areas where expatriates tend to live. The best defense is to proactively take personal responsibility for your own security: know the layout of your dwelling, have someone at home at all times, discuss security procedures with your family and household staff, and know your neighborhood.

Claiming to act in the name of religious or moral standards, certain extremist groups have, on occasion, attacked nightspots and places of entertainment. Most of these attacks have sought to destroy property rather than to injure individuals. International news events can sometimes trigger anti-American or anti-Western demonstrations.

Credit card fraud and theft is a serious and growing problem in Indonesia, particularly for Westerners. Travelers should minimize use of credit cards and instead use cash. If used, credit card numbers should be closely safeguarded at all times. Travelers should also avoid using credit cards for online transactions at Internet cafes and similar venues. Travelers who decide to use credit cards should monitor their credit card activity carefully and immediately report any unauthorized use to their financial institution. ATM cards have been skimmed and cloned, resulting in bank accounts being drained. If you choose to use an ATM, exercise the same level of caution you would in the United States when using unfamiliar ATM machines and monitor your statements closely. Selecting tour guides, hotels, and business partners based on their reputation, competence, and ability to help can be very useful when considering a stay in Indonesia.

Additionally, organized crime is also a problem in Indonesia including illegal logging and fishing, trafficking-in-persons, the sale of illicit and counterfeit drugs, and corruption. You are encouraged to carry a copy of your U.S. passport with you at all times so that if questioned by local officials, proof of identity and proof of U.S. citizenship are readily available. If you are arrested or detained, formal notification of the arrest is normally provided in writing to the U.S. Embassy in Jakarta, a process that can take several weeks. If detained, telephone the U.S. Embassy in Jakarta, or the nearest U.S. consular office immediately.

Drink poisoning and "drink-spiking incidents have been of increasing concern. There have been several reports of foreign tourists and Indonesians suffering from methanol poisoning from adulterated liquor or cocktails, most recently in Bali and Lombok. This has led to serious illness and, in some cases, death. There have also been reports of methanol poisoning from drinking adulterated Arak/Arrack, a local rice or palm liquor. The symptoms of methanol poisoning include headache, dizziness, nausea, and lack of coordination. Symptoms that can occur from 10 to up to 30 hours after initial consumption of methanol include, blurring or complete loss of vision.

There have been many reports of “drink-spiking” in clubs and nightspots. One drug used in these incidents is believed to be an animal tranquilizer, and its effects are extremely powerful. Besides putting the victim in an unconscious state for a long time, the side effects include memory loss, nausea, headaches, and vomiting. Although most of these incidents involve male victims, it is important to remember that females have been victimized in the past with "Date-Rape" drugs. Local, "home brew" alcoholic drinks may also be spiked.

Some ways to avoid “drink-spiking” and drink poisoning include: go out with a group; do not leave drinks unattended; drink at reputable establishments licensed to serve alcohol; do not drink home-brewed alcoholic drinks; be aware that labels on bottles may have been altered or the contents may have been changed; and drink responsibly, in moderation. Even though alcohol is widely available, public inebriation is highly frowned upon.

If you or someone you are traveling with exhibit signs of methanol poisoning or drink spiking, seek immediate medical attention. Maritime piracy in Indonesian waters continues, although incidents have decreased steadily in recent years. The most recent reports are of thefts of valuables or cargo from boats that are in port and not at sea. Before traveling by sea, especially in the Straits of Malacca between the Riau Province and Singapore and in the waters north of Sulawesi and Kalimantan, travelers are recommended to review the current security situation with local authorities.

While counterfeit and pirated goods are widely available in Indonesia, if you purchase them you may be breaking local law. Travelers are reminded thatpenalties may apply if bootleg items are brought into the United States.

Indonesia Penalties for Crime

Criminal Penalties

While you are traveling in Indonesia, you are subject to its laws even if you are a U.S. citizen. Persons violating Indonesian laws, even unknowingly, may be expelled, arrested or imprisoned. Foreign laws and legal systems can be vastly different than our own. There are also some things that might be legal in the country you visit, but still illegal in the United States; for example, you can be prosecuted under U.S. law if you buy pirated goods. In Indonesia, you may be detained for questioning if you don't have your passport with you. It is also illegal to take pictures of certain buildings, and driving under the influence could land you immediately in jail. If you break local laws in Indonesia, your U.S. passport won't help you avoid arrest or prosecution. It's very important to know what's legal and what's not where you are going.

Certain areas of Indonesia are under Sharia law; see the section under Special Circumstances.

In March 2008, the Indonesian parliament passed a bill criminalizing the access of internet sites containing violent or pornographic material. Anyone found guilty of the new offense could be jailed for up to three years or have to pay a heavy fine.

Engaging in sexual conduct with children, using, and/or disseminating child pornography is a crime prosecutable in the United States regardless of the country where the activity occurs. The Indonesian child protection law imposes up to 15 years in prison for those convicted of engaging in sexual contact with a child, and the anti-trafficking in persons law imposes 15 years in prison for anyone engaging in sex with a victim of trafficking.

Penalties for possession, use, or trafficking in illegal drugs in Indonesia are severe, and convicted offenders can expect long jail sentences and heavy fines. A life sentence or the death penalty can be given in cases of drug trafficking; several foreigners have been sentenced to death in recent years. One U.S. citizen was given a life sentence for drug trafficking. Indonesian prisons are harsh and do not meet Western standards. Many prisoners are required to supplement their prison diets and clothing with funds from relatives. Medical and dental care in Indonesian prisons, while available, is below Western standards, and access to medical testing to diagnose illness as well as medications to treat conditions are often difficult to obtain.

Arrest notifications in Indonesia: While some countries will automatically notify the nearest U.S. embassy or consulate if a U.S. citizen is detained or arrested in a foreign country, that might not always be the case. To ensure that the United States Government is aware of your circumstances, request that the police and prison officials notify the nearest U.S. embassy or consulate as soon as you are arrested or detained overseas.

To reach the U.S. Embassy in Jakarta, dial (62) (021)-3435-9000 ext. 0 for the operator and ask for the duty officer. Please remain calm and accept the assistance from and information provided by an Embassy Consular Officer who will visit the arrestee at the earliest possible opportunity.

Indonesia Population Comparison

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