Holy See Government

What is the capital of Holy See?

Country Name Holy See (Vatican City)
Full Country Name The Holy See (Vatican City State)
Local - Long La Santa Sede (Stato della Citta del Vaticano)
Local - Short Santa Sede (Citta del Vaticano)
Etymology- history of name "holy" comes from the Greek word "hera" meaning "sacred"; "see" comes from the Latin word "sedes" meaning "seat," and refers to the episcopal chair; the term "Vatican" derives from the hill Mons Vaticanus on which the Vatican is located and which comes from the Latin "vaticinari" (to prophecy), referring to the fortune tellers and soothsayers who frequented the area in Roman times
Government Type ecclesiastical elective monarchy; self described as an "absolute monarchy"
Capital Name Vatican City
Capital - geographic coordinate 41 54 N, 12 27 E
Capital Time Difference UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Daylight Savings Time +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
Independence 11 February 1929; note - the three treaties signed with Italy on 11 February 1929 acknowledged, among other things, the full sovereignty of the Holy See and established its territorial extent; however, the origin of the Papal States, which over centuries varied considerably in extent, may be traced back to A.D. 754
National Holiday Election Day of Pope FRANCIS, 13 March (2013)
Constitution history: previous 1929, 1963; latest adopted 26 November 2000, effective 22 February 2001 (Fundamental Law of Vatican City State); note - in October 2013, Pope Francis instituted a 9-member Council of Cardinal Advisors to reform the administrative apparatus of the Holy See (Roman Curia) to include writing a new constitution

amendments: note - although the Fundamental Law of Vatican City State makes no mention of amendments, Article Four (drafting laws), states that this legislative responsibility resides with the Pontifical Commission for Vatican City State; draft legislation is submitted through the Secretariat of State and considered by the pope

Holy See Capital City Map

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Holy See Government and Politics

Who is the president of Holy See?

Executive Branch:

chief of state: Pope FRANCIS (since 13 March 2013)

head of government: Secretary of State Cardinal Pietro PAROLIN (since 15 October 2013); note - Head of Government of Vatican City is President Cardinal Giuseppe BERTELLO (since 1 October 2011)

cabinet: Pontifical Commission for the State of Vatican City appointed by the pope

elections/appointments: pope elected by the College of Cardinals, usually for life or until voluntary resignation; election last held on 13 March 2013 (next to be held after the death or resignation of the current pope); Secretary of State appointed by the pope

election results: Jorge Mario BERGOGLIO, former Archbishop of Buenos Aires, elected Pope FRANCIS

Citizenship Criteria:

citizenship by birth: no

citizenship by descent: no

dual citizenship recognized: no

residency requirement for naturalization: not applicable

note: in the Holy See, citizenship is acquired by law, ex iure, or by adminstrative decision; in the first instance citizenship is a function of holding office within the Holy See as in the case of cardinals resident in Vatican City or diplomats of the Holy See; in the second instance, citizenship may be requested in a limited set of circumstances for those who reside within Vatican City under papal authorization, as a function of their office or service, or as the spouses and children of current citizens; citizenship is lost once an individual no longer permanently resides in Vatican City, normally reverting to the citizenship previously held

Legal System:

religious legal system based on canon (religious) law

Suffrage:

election of the pope is limited to cardinals less than 80 years old

Legislative Branch:

description: unicameral Pontifical Commission for Vatican City State or Pontificia Commissione per lo Stato della Citta del Vaticano (7 seats; members appointed by the pope to serve 5-year terms)

elections: last held on 11 July 2018

election results: composition - men 7, women 0

Judicial Branch:

highest courts: Supreme Court or Supreme Tribunal of the Apostolic Signatura (consists of the cardinal prefect, who serves as ex-officio president of the court, and 2 other cardinals of the Prefect Signatura); note - judicial duties were established by the Motu Proprio, papal directive, of Pope PIUS XII on 1 May 1946; most Vatican City criminal matters are handled by the Republic of Italy courts

judge selection and term of office: cardinal prefect appointed by the pope; the other 2 cardinals of the court appointed by the cardinal prefect on a yearly basis

subordinate courts: Appellate Court of Vatican City; Tribunal of Vatican City

Regions or States:

none

Political Parties and Leaders:

none

International Law Organization Participation:

has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt

International Organization Participation:

CE (observer), IAEA, Interpol, IOM, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), OAS (observer), OPCW, OSCE, Schengen Convention (de facto member), SICA (observer), UN (observer), UNCTAD, UNHCR, Union Latina (observer), UNWTO (observer), UPU, WIPO, WTO (observer)

Diplomatic Representation in the US:

chief of mission: Apostolic Nuncio Archbishop Christophe PIERRE (since 27 June 2016)

chancery: 3339 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 333-7121

FAX: [1] (202) 337-4036

Diplomatic Representation from US:

chief of mission: Ambassador Callista GINGRICH (since 22 December 2017)

embassy: American Embassy to the Holy See, Via Sallustiana, 49, 00187 Rome, Italy

mailing address: Unit 5660, Box 66, DPO AE 09624-0066

telephone: [39] (06) 4674-1

FAX: [39] (06) 4674-3412

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