Where is Georgia located?

What countries border Georgia?

Georgia Weather

What is the current weather in Georgia?

Georgia Facts and Culture

What is Georgia famous for?

  • Family: Families usually consist of parents and two children with relatives living close by. More
  • Personal Apperance: Georgians wear casual clothes and follow the latest fashions.Traditional clothes include the chokha ( a tunic that is magenta or... More
  • Recreation: Soccer is the most popular sport. Other sports include wrestling, archery and fencing. tskhenburti (a form of polo) and leloburti... More
  • Food and Recipes: Georgians like spicy food with Turkish, Greek, Arabic or Indian influence. A typical keipi might include khachapuri (baked cheese bread)... More

Georgia Facts

What is the capital of Georgia?

Capital T'bilisi
Government Type semi-presidential republic
Currency Lari (GEL)
Total Area 26,911 Square Miles
69,700 Square Kilometers
Location Southwestern Asia, bordering the Black Sea, between Turkey and Russia, with a sliver of land north of the Caucasus extending into Europe; note - Georgia views itself as part of Europe
Language Georgian 71% (official), Russian 9%, Armenian 7%, Azeri 6%, other 7%

note: Abkhaz is the official language in Abkhazia
GDP - real growth rate 2%
GDP - per capita (PPP) $9,500.00 (USD)

Georgia Demographics

What is the population of Georgia?

Ethnic Groups Georgian 70.1%, Armenian 8.1%, Russian 6.3%, Azeri 5.7%, Ossetian 3%, Abkhaz 1.8%, other 5%
Nationality Noun Georgian(s)
Population 3,997,000
Population Growth Rate -0.33%
Population in Major Urban Areas TBILISI (capital) 1.121 million
Urban Population 52.800000

Georgia Government

What type of government does Georgia have?

Executive Branch chief of state: President Salome ZOURABICHVILI (since 16 December 2018)

head of government: Prime Minister Irakli KOBAKHIDZE (since 8 February 2024); note - Irakli GARIBASHVILI resigned on 29 January 2024 to prepare for general elections in October 2024

cabinet: Cabinet of Ministers

elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 28 November 2018 (next to be held in 2024); prime minister nominated by Parliament, appointed by the president; note - 2017 constitutional amendments made the 2018 election the last where the president was directly elected; future presidents will be elected by a 300-member College of Electors; in light of these changes, ZOURABICHVILI was allowed a six-year term

election results: 2024: Irakli KOBAKHIDZE approved as prime minister by Parliamentary vote 84-10

2018: Salome ZOURABICHVILI elected president in second round; percent of vote in second round - Salome ZOURABICHVILI (independent, backed by Georgian Dream) 59.5%, Grigol VASHADZE (UNM) 40.5%; Irakli GARIBASHVILI approved as prime minister by Parliamentary vote 89-2; note-resigned on January 29, 2024

2013: Giorgi MARGVELASHVILI elected president; Giorgi MARGVELASHVILI (Georgian Dream) 62.1%, David BAKRADZE (ENM) 21.7%, Nino BURJANADZE (DM-UG) 10.2%, other 6%
Suffrage 18 years of age; universal
Citizenship citizenship by birth: no

citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Georgia

dual citizenship recognized: no

residency requirement for naturalization: 10 years
National Holiday Independence Day, 26 May (1918); note - 26 May 1918 was the date of independence from Soviet Russia, 9 April 1991 was the date of independence from the Soviet Union
Constitution history: previous 1921, 1978 (based on 1977 Soviet Union constitution); latest approved 24 August 1995, effective 17 October 1995

amendments: proposed as a draft law supported by more than one half of the Parliament membership or by petition of at least 200,000 voters; passage requires support by at least three fourths of the Parliament membership in two successive sessions three months apart and the signature and promulgation by the president of Georgia; amended several times, last in 2020 (legislative electoral system revised)
Independence 9 April 1991 (from the Soviet Union); notable earlier date: A.D. 1008 (Georgia unified under King BAGRAT III)

Georgia Video

YouTube: Unesco Georgian Polyphonic Singing

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Georgia Geography

What environmental issues does Georgia have?

Overview The Republic of Georgia is situated on the eastern shore of the Black Sea and bordered by Russia and the Caucasus Mountains to the north. Its neighbor to the east is Azerbaijan, to the south are Turkey and Armenia. Georgia is at a crossroads of European and Asian commerce, culture, and religion.

Starting in the east, Georgia’s landscape is largely semidesert. In the western portion lay the permanently snow-covered peaks and glaciers of the Caucasian Mountains, with summits as high as 5,000 meters. The peak of Kazbegi is a popular destination for climbers. The subtropical climate near the Black Sea coast nourishes citrus groves and tea plantations. Numerous rivers, including the Mtkvari and the Rioni, wind through Georgia’s mountains and valleys. Many of these rivers are used to generate hydroelectric power.

Climate Protected by the Black Sea and Caucasus Mountains, Georgia's climate is relatively mild. Seasonal temperatures range from winter daytime highs of 32°F-35°F to summer daytime highs of 86°F-93°F. Except in the subtropical regions, humidity is relatively low in summer. Spring daytime highs average in the high 60s to the mid 70s. The weather allows for outside activity most of the year.
Border Countries Armenia 164 km, Azerbaijan 322 km, Russia 723 km, Turkey 252 km
Environment - Current Issues air pollution, particularly in Rust'avi; heavy pollution of Mtkvari River and the Black Sea; inadequate supplies of potable water; soil pollution from toxic chemicals
Environment - International Agreements party to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Terrain largely mountainous with Great Caucasus Mountains in the north and Lesser Caucasus Mountains in the south; Kolkhet'is Dablobi (Kolkhida Lowland) opens to the Black Sea in the west; Mtkvari River Basin in the east; good soils in river valley flood plains,

Georgia Economy

How big is the Georgia economy?

Economic Overview Georgia's main economic activities include cultivation of agricultural products such as grapes, citrus fruits, and hazelnuts; mining of manganese, copper, and gold; and producing alcoholic and nonalcoholic beverages, metals, machinery, and chemicals in small-scale industries. The country imports nearly all of its needed supplies of natural gas and oil products. It has sizeable hydropower capacity that now provides most of its electricity needs.

Georgia has overcome the chronic energy shortages and gas supply interruptions of the past by renovating hydropower plants and by increasingly relying on natural gas imports from Azerbaijan instead of from Russia. Construction of the Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan oil pipeline, the South Caucasus gas pipeline, and the Baku-Tbilisi-Kars railroad are part of a strategy to capitalize on Georgia's strategic location between Europe and Asia and develop its role as a transit hub for gas, oil, and other goods.

Georgia's economy sustained GDP growth of more than 10% in 2006-07, based on strong inflows of foreign investment, remittances, and robust government spending. However, GDP growth slowed following the August 2008 conflict with Russia, and sank to negative 4% in 2009 as foreign direct investment and workers' remittances declined in the wake of the global financial crisis. The economy rebounded in the period 2010-17, but FDI inflows, the engine of Georgian economic growth prior to the 2008 conflict, have not recovered fully. Unemployment remains persistently high.

The country is pinning its hopes for faster growth on a continued effort to build up infrastructure, enhance support for entrepreneurship, simplify regulations, and improve professional education, in order to attract foreign investment and boost employment, with a focus on transportation projects, tourism, hydropower, and agriculture. Georgia had historically suffered from a chronic failure to collect tax revenues; however, since 2004 the government has simplified the tax code, increased tax enforcement, and cracked down on petty corruption, leading to higher revenues. The government has received high marks from the World Bank for improvements in business transparency. Since 2012, the Georgian Dream-led government has continued the previous administration's low-regulation, low-tax, free market policies, while modestly increasing social spending and amending the labor code to comply with International Labor Standards. In mid-2014, Georgia concluded an association agreement with the EU, paving the way to free trade and visa-free travel. In 2017, Georgia signed Free Trade Agreement (FTA) with China as part of Tbilisi’s efforts to diversify its economic ties. Georgia is seeking to develop its Black Sea ports to further facilitate East-West trade.
Industries steel, aircraft, machine tools, electrical appliances, mining (manganese and copper), chemicals, wood products, wine
Currency Name and Code Lari (GEL)
Export Partners Turkey 21.7%, Italy 11.4%, Russia 10.7%, Greece 8.1%, Netherlands 7.1%, Spain 5.5%, Turkmenistan 4.5%
Import Partners Azerbaijan 11.7%, Turkey 10.6%, US 10.4%, Russia 9.5%, Germany 7.4%, Ukraine 6%, Italy 5.3%, Bulgaria 5.1%, France 4.4%

Georgia News and Current Events

What current events are happening in Georgia?
Source: Google News

Georgia Travel Information

What makes Georgia a unique country to travel to?

Country Description

Georgia is a constitutional republic with a developing democracy and economy. October 2012 parliamentary elections resulted in Georgia’s first democratic transfer of power. Approximately 250,000 internally displaced persons from the conflicts in the Abkhazia and South Ossetia regions remain. Tourist facilities outside of Tbilisi and Batumi are not highly developed, and many of the goods and services taken for granted in other countries are not yet available.


When traveling in Georgia, you should take the same precautions against becoming a victim of crime as you would in any large city. U.S. citizens in particular are perceived as being wealthy, and therefore may be targeted for economic and property-based crimes. Petty street crime, such as theft by pickpockets, has been reported throughout the country, particularly in crowded places such as tourist sites or on public transportation. Firearms are readily available in Georgia and assailants may be armed with firearms or other weapons. There are also disputes, sometimes in areas where U.S. citizens frequent, which include firearms and may endanger U.S. citizens.

Vary your times and routes, especially from places of residence to work locations. Maintain a low profile – do not carry large amounts of cash or otherwise draw unnecessary attention to yourself. Report any security-related incidents such as suspicious vehicles, individuals, or activities, to the Georgian authorities, and also inform the U.S. Embassy as soon as possible.

Travel in pairs or groups, and stay on main streets and routes. The U.S. Embassy recommends that if you are traveling throughout the country you do so during daylight hours only and provide a travel itinerary and contact telephone numbers to someone before you go.

See below for more details on road safety in Georgia. Personal vehicles and established (clearly marked) taxis and public transportation are generally safe for overland travel in Georgia. However, crowded and “off the beaten path” conditions of some public transportation increase passengers’ vulnerability to robbery.

U.S. citizens have reported occurrences of sexual assault in Georgia, including date or acquaintance rape. Women should avoid being alone in isolated areas with people whom they do not know well. In many of the reported cases, alcohol was involved. Avoid traveling alone in a private taxi or a “marshrutka” mini-bus, especially after dark. Victims of sexual assault should first get to a safe location and then call the local police and the U.S. Embassy. Women victimized overseas may be entitled to receive compensation for counseling and/or other services, including relocation back to the United States.

Criminal Penalties

While you are traveling in Georgia, you are subject to its laws even if you are a U.S. citizen. Foreign laws and legal systems can be vastly different than our own, and criminal penalties vary from country to country. Penalties for possessing, using, or trafficking in illegal drugs in Georgia are severe, and convicted offenders can expect long jail sentences and heavy fines.

There are also some things that might be legal in the country you visit, but still illegal in the United States. For example, you can be prosecuted under U.S. law if you buy pirated goods. Engaging in sexual conduct with children, using, or disseminating child pornography in a foreign country is a crime prosecutable in the United States. If you break local laws in Georgia, your U.S. passport won’t help you avoid arrest or prosecution. It’s very important to know what’s legal and what’s not wherever you go.

Arrest notifications in host country: While some countries will automatically notify the nearest U.S. Embassy if a U.S. citizen is detained or arrested in a foreign country, that might not always be the case. To ensure that the United States is aware of your circumstances, request that the police and prison officials notify the nearest U.S. Embassy as soon as you are arrested or detained overseas.

If you are arrested in Georgia, the local authorities are required to notify the U.S. Embassy of your arrest. If you are concerned that the Department of State may not be aware of your situation, you should request that police or prison officials notify the U.S. Embassy of your arrest. A Consular Officer from the Embassy will visit you but will not be able to get you out of jail. You will need to consult an attorney. A list of English-speaking attorneys can be found on the embassy’s website. The Georgian authorities will provide you with an attorney and translator if you cannot afford one.

Medical Facilities and Health Information

Western-standard medical care in Georgia is limited, but Georgian healthcare continues to improve. There is a shortage of medical supplies and capabilities outside of Tbilisi and Batumi. Elderly travelers and those with pre-existing health problems may be at risk due to inadequate medical facilities. We strongly recommend that travelers who intend to visit Georgia for at least two weeks get the Hepatitis A vaccine and the pre-exposure rabies vaccine series. Travelers are also encouraged to bring medicine to treat diarrhea, which regularly afflicts newcomers. Georgian doctors and hospitals often expect immediate cash payment before rendering medical services.

Travelers should take care that food is cooked thoroughly to reduce the risk of food-borne illness.

Tuberculosis is an increasingly serious health concern in Georgia.

There are eight known poisonous snake species in Georgia. The season when you are most likely to encounter snakes is between March and October. Anti-venom is available for some species in a small number of facilities. Treat all snakes as poisonous.

Safety and Security

he Department of State strongly warns U.S. citizens against travel to the occupied regions of South Ossetia, in north-central Georgia, and Abkhazia, in northwest Georgia. These regions are not under the control of the central government following civil wars in the early 1990s, and the conflict with Russia in August 2008. Tensions remain high between the de facto authorities in Abkhazia and South Ossetia and the Georgian central government. Russian troops and border guards continue to occupy both regions. A number of attacks, criminal incidents, and kidnappings have occurred in and around the area over the past several years. Unexploded ordinance poses a danger near the Administrative Boundary Lines of both territories, particularly near South Ossetia. Entering the occupied regions without the proper documentation can lead to arrest, imprisonment, and/or fines by Russian, Georgian, or de facto officials. If travel to the occupied territories cannot be avoided the U.S. Embassy recommends travelers follow applicable Georgian laws. Georgian law specifies that U.S. citizens may enter the two regions from the southern Georgian side, and not from the northern Russian border.

Any economic activity for which a relevant license, registration, or permission has not been obtained from the Georgian government;
Import and/or export of military products, or products that have double designation;
International air, maritime and railway travel, as well as international transportation of cargoby automobile;
Use of national resources;
Organization of cash transfer; or
Financing or any type of support of activities listed in Paragraphs (a) – (e)...

Medical services in the occupied territories are extremely limited. Hospitals do not accept credit cards or medical insurance, have little to no infectious disease control, and lack medicine. There are no commercial airports in either region making air ambulance evacuations for medical emergencies impossible. U.S. Embassy personnel are restricted fromtravel to Abkhazia or South Ossetia, even in the case of emergencies involving U.S. citizens.For these reasons the U.S. Government strongly advises U.S. citizens to avoid all travel to these regions.

All travelers to Georgia should enroll in the Smart Traveler Enrollment Program (STEP). U.S. citizensshould regularly monitor Emergency Messages on the U.S. Embassy’s website for the latest information on the security situation throughout Georgia. In the case of a crisis and/or natural disaster, U.S. citizens in Tbilisi may tune in to FM radio stations for any updated U.S. Embassy emergency message for U.S. citizens.

Political demonstrations take place from time to time in Georgia, sometimes in front of the former Parliament building on Rustaveli Avenue. While these demonstrations are generally peaceful, some confrontations between the government and protesters have occurred in years past. U. S. citizens should be aware that even peaceful demonstrations can escalate into violence with little or no notice. Security Messages for U.S. Citizens pertaining to Demonstration are posted on the U.S. Embassy Tbilisi website. Because of the possibility of violence, we urge U.S. citizens to avoid all demonstrations. U.S. citizens should stay up to date with media coverage of local events, review their personal security practices, and be aware of their surroundings at all times.

Traffic Safety and Road Conditions

While in Georgia, you will encounter road conditions that differ significantly from those in the United States. As in the United States, vehicular traffic in Georgia moves along the right side of roadways. Speed limits range from 80 to 100 km/hr on highways, and from 30 to 60 km/hr on urban thoroughfares. Motorists are not permitted to make right turns at red traffic lights. Front-seat passengers are required by law to fasten their seat belts in moving vehicles. Georgian law requires that children under four (4) years of age be restrained in child-safety seats, however these are not widely available or used. Children under twelve (12) years of age may not legally ride in the front seat, but this law is not widely observed. A driver with any blood-alcohol concentration exceeding 0.00% is considered to be driving under the influence of alcohol.

You should exercise extreme caution when driving in Georgia, as many local drivers do not operate their vehicles in accordance with established traffic laws. Traffic signals and rules of the road are often completely ignored. Motorists drive erratically, often recklessly, at excessive speeds, and many times under the influence of alcohol or drugs. Motorists frequently encounter oncoming high-speed traffic attempting to pass other vehicles at blind turns or over hilltops. Pedestrians enjoy no right-of-way and need to be extremely careful when crossing streets. The Georgian Patrol Police, who come under the authority of the Ministry of Internal Affairs, are responsible for maintaining traffic safety in Georgia, but enforcement of traffic regulations is haphazard. There is no requirement that vehicles are certified safe to drive, and some vehicles may not have working headlights or tail lights.

Undivided two-lane roads connect most major cities in Georgia. Outside of major highways, roads are generally in poor condition, unpaved, and often lack shoulder markings, center lines, and lighting. In addition, traffic signals may not work due to poor maintenance. Driving at night can be especially dangerous. Travel on mountain roads is treacherous in both rain and snow, and during winter, heavy snowfalls may make some roads impassable.

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