Ethiopia Geography

What is the terrain and geography like in Ethiopia?


Ethiopia, part of the Horn of Africa, borders Eritrea, Sudan, Kenya, Somalia, and Djibouti. It has an area of 1,127,127 square kilometers, slightly less than twice the size of Texas. Only 12% of the total land area is arable, with about 85% of the people dependent on agriculture or animal husbandry for subsistence.

The terrain consists of high plateaus, mountains, and dry lowland plains. Ethiopia has some of the world’s most rugged and beautiful scenery. Changes in vegetation and terrain offer striking differences and are readily apparent when traveling in any direction from Addis Ababa. Fertile farmland, high mountains with crater lakes, deep canyons and abysses, low-lying savannas, and deserts are some of the many aspects of Ethiopia’s topography.

Geography - note

landlocked - entire coastline along the Red Sea was lost with the de jure independence of Eritrea on 24 May 1993; Ethiopia is, therefore, the most populous landlocked country in the world; the Blue Nile, the chief headstream of the Nile by water volume, rises in T'ana Hayk (Lake Tana) in northwest Ethiopia; three major crops are believed to have originated in Ethiopia: coffee, grain sorghum, and castor bean

Ethiopia Use of Natural Resources

Geographic Location Africa
Total Area 426,370 Square Miles
1,104,300 Square Kilometers
Land Area 386,100 Square Miles
1,000,000 Square Kilometers
Water Area 40,270 Square Miles
104,300 Square Kilometers
Land Boundaries 3,311 Miles
5,328 Kilometers
Irrigated Land 1,118 Square Miles
2,896 Square Kilometers
Border Countries Djibouti 349 km, Eritrea 912 km, Kenya 861 km, Somalia 1,600 km, Sudan 1,606 km
Geographic Coordinates 8 00 N, 38 00 E
Terrain high plateau with central mountain range divided by Great Rift Valley
Highest Point 4,620 Meters
Highest Point Location Ras Dejen 4,620 m
Lowest Point -125 Meters
Lowest Point Location Denakil Depression -125 m
Natural Resources small reserves of gold, platinum, copper, potash, natural gas, hydropower
Time Zone UTC+3 (8 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

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