Where is Eritrea located?

What countries border Eritrea?

Eritrea Weather

What is the current weather in Eritrea?

Eritrea Facts and Culture

What is Eritrea famous for?

  • Cultural Attributes: Eritreans believe in cooperation and friendliness. Self-sufficiency is also valued. Love of country is important. More
  • Family: A family includes grand-parents, parents and four or more children. After marrying, a son and his wife generally live with... More
  • Personal Apperance: Eritreans wear Western-style clothing. Pants are worn by women and girls. Highland Christian women often wear white cotton dresses, or... More
  • Recreation: Urban kids have more recreation time than rural farm children and some spend their evenings dancing at clubs while rural... More
  • Diet: The Eritrean diet is traditionally varied. However, the war affected availability of certain foods. The preferred meal is meat (chicken,... More
  • Food and Recipes: Eritrean families eat together, though when guests are present, children may eat separately. In the rural areas, children and adults... More
  • Visiting: Visiting among friends and relatives is common without invitation. Guest are often asked to join the family in a meal.... More
  • Dating: In Eritrea, almost all marriages are arranged. The couple however, usually makes the final decision whether to marry or not.... More

Eritrea Facts

What is the capital of Eritrea?

Capital Asmara
Government Type presidential republic
Currency nakfa (ERN)
Total Area 45,405 Square Miles
117,600 Square Kilometers
Location Eastern Africa, bordering the Red Sea, between Djibouti and Sudan
Language Afar, Arabic, Tigre and Kunama, Tigrinya, other Cushitic languages
GDP - real growth rate 3.7%
GDP - per capita (PPP) $1,300.00 (USD)

Eritrea Demographics

What is the population of Eritrea?

Ethnic Groups ethnic Tigrinya 50%, Tigre and Kunama 40%, Afar 4%, Saho (Red Sea coast dwellers) 3%, other 3%
Languages Eritrea has no official language. Tigrinya, Arabic and English are all government, working languages. Tigrinya is spoken by highlanders, and is related to Tigre, spoken by people in the western and eastern lowlands. They use an ancient Ge'ez script. Like Arabic, they are both Semitic tongues. Arabic is widely used in commerce.
Nationality Noun Eritrean(s)
Population 6,081,196
Population Growth Rate 2.36%
Population in Major Urban Areas ASMARA (capital) 712,000
Urban Population 21.300000

Eritrea Government

What type of government does Eritrea have?

Executive Branch chief of state: President ISAIAS Afwerki (since 24 May 1993); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government and is head of the State Council and National Assembly

head of government: President ISAIAS Afwerki (since 8 June 1993)

cabinet: State Council appointed by the president

elections/appointments: president indirectly elected by the National Assembly for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term), according to the constitution; the only election held was on 24 May 1993, following independence from Ethiopia (next postponed indefinitely)

election results: 1993: ISAIAS Afwerki elected president by the transitional National Assembly; percent of National Assembly vote - ISAIAS Afwerki (PFDJ) 95%, other 5%
Suffrage 18 years of age; universal
Citizenship citizenship by birth: no

citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Eritrea

dual citizenship recognized: no

residency requirement for naturalization: 20 years
National Holiday Independence Day, 24 May (1991)
Constitution history: ratified by the Constituent Assembly 23 May 1997 (never implemented)

amendments: proposed by the president of Eritrea or by assent of at least one half of the National Assembly membership; passage requires at least an initial three-quarters majority vote by the Assembly and, after one year, final passage by at least four-fifths majority vote by the Assembly
Independence 24 May 1993 (from Ethiopia)

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Eritrea Geography

What environmental issues does Eritrea have?

Overview Eritrea is a country of stark and dramatic landscapes from its 630-mile Red Sea coastline to its high craggy mountains to the desolate Danakil Depression. The capital of Asmara, at 7,600 feet above sea level, is located on a high plateau in the center of the country. The descent from Asmara to the port of Massawa is one of the most spectacular drives in the world, taking nearly three hours over hairpin curves to cover the 65 miles to the coast. Off the coast are some 350 islands, most of them uninhabited and little explored. The coral reefs which surround many of the islands were left undisturbed by tourism and over-fishing during the long war, and are among the healthiest in the world. The country’s lowest point is minus 75 meters, near Dalul in the Danakil Depression; its highest is Mount Soira at 3,018 meters. Only about 12% of the land is arable.

The climate in the central highlands, including Asmara, is near perfection, usually in the 70’s or 80’s during the day, cooling off to the 50’s at night. There is little humidity and it seldom rains except during the July/August rainy season when daily afternoon showers are the norm. Asmara receives about 21 inches of rain each year. April, May and June are the warmest months on the plateau, with the cooler season stretching from November to March.

Temperatures in the lowlands can be scorchingly hot, typically ranging from 105°F to 120°F, sometimes more, in August. Along the coast, including in the port cities of Massawa and Assab, high humidity often accompanies the heat. Winter highs here are around 90, with evening temperatures in the 70s.

Border Countries Djibouti 109 km, Ethiopia 912 km, Sudan 605 km
Environment - Current Issues deforestation; desertification; soil erosion; overgrazing; loss of infrastructure from civil warfare
Environment - International Agreements party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Terrain dominated by extension of Ethiopian north-south trending highlands, descending on the east to a coastal desert plain, on the northwest to hilly terrain and on the southwest to flat-to-rolling plains

Eritrea Economy

How big is the Eritrea economy?

Economic Overview Since formal independence from Ethiopia in 1993, Eritrea has faced many economic problems, including lack of financial resources and chronic drought. Eritrea has a command economy under the control of the sole political party, the People's Front for Democracy and Justice. Like the economies of many African nations, a large share of the population - nearly 80% in Eritrea - is engaged in subsistence agriculture, but the sector only produces a small share of the country's total output. Mining accounts for the lion's share of output.

The government has strictly controlled the use of foreign currency by limiting access and availability; new regulations in 2013 aimed at relaxing currency controls have had little economic effect. Few large private enterprises exist in Eritrea and most operate in conjunction with government partners, including a number of large international mining ventures, which began production in 2013. In late 2015, the Government of Eritrea introduced a new currency, retaining the name nakfa, and restricted the amount of hard currency individuals could withdraw from banks per month. The changeover has resulted in exchange fluctuations and the scarcity of hard currency available in the market.

While reliable statistics on Eritrea are difficult to obtain, erratic rainfall and the large percentage of the labor force tied up in military service continue to interfere with agricultural production and economic development. Eritrea's harvests generally cannot meet the food needs of the country without supplemental grain purchases. Copper, potash, and gold production are likely to continue to drive limited economic growth and government revenue over the next few years, but military spending will continue to compete with development and investment plans.
Industries food processing, beverages, clothing and textiles, light manufacturing, salt, cement
Currency Name and Code nakfa (ERN)

Eritrea News and Current Events

What current events are happening in Eritrea?
Source: Google News

Eritrea Travel Information

What makes Eritrea a unique country to travel to?

Country Description

Eritrea is a poor East African country, the capital of which is Asmara. Formerly a province of Ethiopia, Eritrea became an independent country on May 24, 1993, following a 30-year struggle that culminated in an overwhelming referendum vote for independence. Tourism facilities are very limited.


Crime in Asmara has increased due to deteriorating economic conditions along with persistent food, water, and fuel shortages, and rapid price inflation. Travelers should exercise vigilance in their personal security and take safety precautions regarding the valuables they carry and areas they visit. Eritrean authorities have limited capacity to deter or investigate crime or prosecute perpetrators.

Don’t buy counterfeit and pirated goods, even if they are widely available. Not only are the bootlegs illegal in the United States, if you purchase them you may also be breaking local law. Do not attempt to take advantage of street or black market exchange in foreign currency. It is illegal and there are extremely stiff penalties. Utilize government exchange at the airport, hotel, or bank.

Criminal Penalties

While you are in Eritrea, you are subject to its laws even if you are a U.S. citizen. Foreign laws and legal systems are vastly different than our own. You may be taken in for questioning if you don’t have your passport or identification with you. It is illegal to take pictures of government buildings. Driving under the influence could land you immediately in jail, as could a traffic accident, whether or not you are at fault. There are also some things that might be legal in the country you visit, but still illegal in the United States; for example you can be prosecuted under U.S. law if you buy pirated goods in Eritrea, even if you are not prosecuted in Eritrea.

Engaging in sexual conduct with children or using or disseminating child pornography in a foreign country is a crime prosecutable in the United States. If you break local laws in Eritrea, your U.S. passport won’t help you avoid arrest or prosecution. It’s very important to know what’s legal and what’s not where you are going.

Persons violating Eritrea’s laws, even unknowingly, may be expelled, arrested, or imprisoned. Penalties for possessing, using, or trafficking in illegal drugs in Eritrea are severe, and convicted offenders can expect long jail sentences and heavy fines.

Arrest notifications in Eritrea: Based on the Vienna Convention on Consular Relations, bilateral agreements with certain countries, and customary international law, if you are arrested in Eritrea, you have the option to request that the police, prison officials, or other authorities alert the nearest U.S. embassy or consulate of your arrest, and to have communications from you forwarded to the nearest U.S. embassy or consulate. However, in Eritrea, contrary to the Vienna Convention, such requests are not generally granted.


Eritrea has no official language. Tigrinya, Arabic and English are all government, working languages. Tigrinya is spoken by highlanders, and is related to Tigre, spoken by people in the western and eastern lowlands. They use an ancient Ge'ez script. Like Arabic, they are both Semitic tongues. Arabic is widely used in commerce.

Medical Facilities and Health Information

Medical facilities and physicians in Eritrea are limited. In 2010, the Eritrean government closed all private medical clinics and laboratories. Travelers should carry their own supplies of prescription drugs and preventative medicines because pharmaceuticals may be in short supply. Food and water-borne illnesses are very common among travelers, so drink only bottled or purified water and eat foods that are cooked or peeled. Malaria and dengue fever are serious risks to travelers in the lowlands of Eritrea, particularly during the rainy season (November to February). One of the worst dengue fever outbreaks in recent Eritrean history occurred during the winter of 2009-10 in Massawa. Asmara, because of its altitude, is generally considered free of these mosquito-borne illnesses. Travelers to the lowlands are urged to carry mosquito repellent and mosquito nets, especially during the rainy season.

Safety and Security

Eritrea and Ethiopia fought a border war from 1998-2000. United Nations peacekeepers patrolled the border until March 2008, when Government of Eritrea diesel fuel restrictions resulted in the peacekeepers’ withdrawal. Both Eritrea and Ethiopia maintain large military presences along the border and all border crossings into Ethiopia from Eritrea remain closed. U.S. citizens are strongly advised to avoid travel near the Eritrean-Ethiopian border and to the Southern Red Sea region, including the port of Assab, as there have been military tensions in these areas.

Landmines and unexploded ordnance remain a serious problem throughout the country. There are reports of accidents and incidents where vehicles and people occasionally detonate mines. Many detonations occurred on relatively well-traveled roads in and near the Gash Barka region of western Eritrea; subsequent investigations indicated that several mines were recently laid. In September 2011, press reported that a vehicle in Senafe, 60 miles south of Asmara, ran over a landmine, killing five persons and injuring the 34 others. Vast areas of the country still have not been certified free of mines and unexploded ordnance left over from both the 30-year war for independence and the subsequent 1998-2000 conflict with Ethiopia. U.S. citizens should avoid walking alone and hiking in riverbeds or areas that local government officials have not certified as safe.

Although Eritrea and Sudan have diplomatic relations, the procedures for crossing their common border are variable and subject to change. Overland travel between the two countries is dangerous and ill-advised. Travelers crossing from Eritrea to Sudan north and west of the Keren-Barentu road risk becoming victims of banditry, kidnapping, or insurgent activity. Numerous incidents have been reported since 2008, apparently involving insurgents or criminals in this area. The U.S. Embassy also received reports of sporadic bombings of vehicles and government facilities in the Gash Barka region near Sudan in 2007 and 2008. If travel near the Eritrean-Sudanese border is essential, travelers should consult both the Eritrean authorities and the U.S. Embassy in advance. Foreign travelers who wish to visit any area outside of Asmara must apply at least ten days in advance for a travel permit from the Eritrean government.

U.S. citizens are urged to avoid sailing off the coast of Eritrea. In August 2011, three separate incidents of piracy were reported off the Eritrean coast near the port of Assab. Multiple high-speed skiffs with armed persons onboard continue to attack merchant vessels. If transit around the Horn of Africa is necessary, it is strongly recommended that vessels travel in convoys, maintain good communications contact at all times, and follow the guidance provided by the Maritime Security Center – Horn of Africa (MSC-HOA). U.S. citizens should consult the Maritime Administration’s Horn of Africa Piracy page for information on maritime advisories, self-protection measures, and naval forces in the region.

U.S. citizens are also urged to avoid remote Eritrean islands, some which have Eritrean military facilities.

Traffic Safety and Road Conditions

While in Eritrea, you may encounter road conditions that differ significantly from those in the United States. According to the World Health Organization’s first report on global road safety in September 2009, Eritrea’s roads are deadly. The roads between major cities (Asmara, Massawa, Mendefera, Dekemhare, Barentu, and Keren) are paved and in relatively good condition, though winding mountain roads do not generally have guardrails. Secondary roads and roads in remote areas are usually unpaved and in poor condition. U.S. citizens should avoid traveling on these roads, especially at night. Bad weather can also make the condition of poor roads worse. If you must take unpaved roads, check first with local government and village officials as new minefields continue to be discovered. Even in Asmara city, some road surfaces have deteriorated to dangerous conditions. Eritreans are found travelling on foot nearly everywhere due to lack of transportation, often dressed in dark clothing and in unlit areas at night, which creates unpredictable and dangerous situations on roads. Street lighting may not exist in some locations, and power outages continue to leave some neighborhoods in the dark. Speed limits may not be obeyed. Travelers should check with the Embassy of Eritrea regarding drivers’ license requirements prior to your traveling to Eritrea.

Landmines and unexploded ordnance litter the countryside in many areas, occasionally causing injuries and deaths. Although the UN conducted de-mining efforts until late 2007, evidence of new mines has been reported, particularly in areas near the Ethiopian border. All areas that are not well traveled are potentially dangerous due to live mines, especially north and west of Keren. There are also minefields near Massawa, Ghinda, Agordat, Barentu, south of Tessenae, Nakfa, Adi Keih, Arezza, Dekemhare, and in a roughly 40-kilometer (24.8 mile) wide region just west of the Eritrean-Ethiopian border between the Setit and Mereb Rivers.

Many Eritreans use inexpensive public transportation, especially bus service. Travelers should avoid taking buses due to extreme over-crowding. Taxis are plentiful and inexpensive in Asmara, but usually carry multiple passengers along pre-defined routes. If an empty taxi is available, a customer may request a "contract" taxi, which accepts no additional passengers, for a higher fixed price. Drivers should be aware of heavy and erratic pedestrian, livestock, and bicycle traffic obstructing vehicle flow. Children and the elderly sometimes wander into the path of moving traffic, as do slow, motorized carts. Elderly or disabled people may not always yield to faster moving traffic.

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