Egypt Government

What is the capital of Egypt?

Country Name Egypt
Full Country Name Arab Republic of Egypt
Local - Long Jumhuriyat Misr al-Arabiyah
Local - Short Misr
Former Name United Arab Republic (short-lived unification with Syria)
Etymology- history of name the English name "Egypt" derives from the ancient Greek name for the country "Aigyptos"; the Arabic name "Misr" can be traced to the ancient Akkadian "misru" meaning border or frontier
Government Type presidential republic
Capital Name Cairo
Capital - geographic coordinate 30 03 N, 31 15 E
Capital Time Difference UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Daylight Savings Time +1hr, begins last Friday in April; ends last Thursday in October
Independence 28 February 1922 (from UK protectorate status; the military-led revolution that began on 23 July 1952 led to a republic being declared on 18 June 1953 and all British troops withdrawn on 18 June 1956); note - it was ca. 3200 B.C. that the Two Lands of Upper (southern) and Lower (northern) Egypt were first united politically
National Holiday Revolution Day, 23 July (1952)
Constitution history: several previous; latest approved by a constitutional committee in December 2013, approved by referendum held on 14-15 January 2014, ratified by interim president on 19 January 2014

amendments: proposed by the president of the republic or by one fifth of the House of Representatives members; a decision to accept the proposal requires majority vote by House members; passage of amendment requires a two-thirds majority vote by House members and passage by majority vote in a referendum; articles of reelection of the president and principles of freedom are not amendable unless the amendment "brings more guarantees;" amended 2019

Egypt Capital City Map

Source: Google Maps

Egypt Government and Politics

Who is the president of Egypt?

Executive Branch: chief of state: President Abdelfattah ELSISI (since 8 June 2014)

head of government: Prime Minister Mostafa MADBOULY (since 7 June 2018)

cabinet: Cabinet ministers nominated by the executive branch and approved by the House of Representatives

elections/appointments: president elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 6-year term (eligible for 3 consecutive terms); election last held on 26 to 28 March 2018 (next to be held 10 to 12 December 2023); prime minister appointed by the president, approved by the House of Representatives; note - following a constitutional amendment approved by referendum in April 2019, the presidential term was extended from 4 to 6 years and eligibility extended to 3 consecutive terms

election results: Abdelfattah ELSISI reelected president in first round; percent of valid votes cast - Abdelfattah ELSISI (independent) 97.1%, Moussa Mostafa MOUSSA (El Ghad Party) 2.9%; note - more than 7% of ballots cast were deemed invalid
Citizenship Criteria: citizenship by birth: no

citizenship by descent only: if the father was born in Egypt

dual citizenship recognized: only with prior permission from the government

residency requirement for naturalization: 10 years
Legal System: mixed legal system based on Napoleonic civil and penal law, Islamic religious law, and vestiges of colonial-era laws; judicial review of the constitutionality of laws by the Supreme Constitutional Court
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal and compulsory
Legislative Branch: description: bicameral Parliament consists of:

Senate (Majlis Al-Shiyoukh) (300 seats; 100 members directly elected in single seat constituencies, 100 directly elected by closed party-list vote, and 100 appointed by the president; note - the upper house, previously the Shura Council, was eliminated in the 2014 constitution, reestablished as the Senate, following passage in a 2019 constitutional referendum and approved by the House of Representatives in June 2020

House of Representatives (Majlis Al-Nowaab) (596 seats; 448 members directly elected by individual candidacy system, 120 members - with quotas for women, youth, Christians and workers - elected in party-list constituencies by simple majority popular vote, and 28 members appointed by the president; members of both houses serve 5-year terms

elections: Senate - first round held on 11-12 August 2020 (9-10 August for diaspora); second round held on 8-9 September (6-7 September for diaspora) (next to be held in 2025)

House of Representatives - last held 24-25 October and 7-8 November 2020) (next to be held in 2025)

election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - Nation's Future Party 100, independent 100; composition - men 260, women 40, percent of women 13.3%

House of Representatives - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - Nation's Future Party 316, Republican People's Party 50, New Wafd Party 26, Homeland Defenders Party 23, Modern Egypt Party 11, Reform and Development Party 9, Al-Nour Party 7, Egyptian Conference Party 7, Egyptian Freedom Party 7, Egyptian Social Democratic Party 7, Tagammu 6, Justice Party 2, Etradet Geel Party 1, independent 124; composition - men 428, women 164, percent of women 27.5%; note - total Parliament percent of women 22.8%
Judicial Branch: highest court(s): Supreme Constitutional Court (SCC) (consists of the court president and 10 justices); the SCC serves as the final court of arbitration on the constitutionality of laws and conflicts between lower courts regarding jurisdiction and rulings; Court of Cassation (CC) (consists of the court president and 550 judges organized in circuits with cases heard by panels of 5 judges); the CC is the highest appeals body for civil and criminal cases, also known as "ordinary justices"; Supreme Administrative Court (SAC) (consists of the court president and NA judges and organized in circuits with cases heard by panels of 5 judges); the SAC is the highest court of the State Council

judge selection and term of office: under the 2014 constitution, all judges and justices selected and appointed by the Supreme Judiciary Council and approved as a formality by the president of the Republic; judges appointed for life; under the 2019 amendments, the president has the power to appoint heads of judiciary authorities and courts, the prosecutor general, and the head of the Supreme Constitutional Court

subordinate courts: Courts of Appeal; Courts of First Instance; courts of limited jurisdiction; Family Court (established in 2004)
Regions or States: 27 governorates (muhafazat, singular - muhafazat); Ad Daqahliyah, Al Bahr al Ahmar (Red Sea), Al Buhayrah, Al Fayyum, Al Gharbiyah, Al Iskandariyah (Alexandria), Al Isma'iliyah (Ismailia), Al Jizah (Giza), Al Minufiyah, Al Minya, Al Qahirah (Cairo), Al Qalyubiyah, Al Uqsur (Luxor), Al Wadi al Jadid (New Valley), As Suways (Suez), Ash Sharqiyah, Aswan, Asyut, Bani Suwayf, Bur Sa'id (Port Said), Dumyat (Damietta), Janub Sina' (South Sinai), Kafr ash Shaykh, Matruh, Qina, Shamal Sina' (North Sinai), Suhaj
Political Parties and Leaders: Al-Nour [Yunis MAKHYUN]

Arab Democratic Nasserist Party [El Etehad el Masri el ARABI]

Congress Party [Omar Al-Mokhtar SEMIDA]

Conservative Party [El Mohafezin]

Democratic Peace Party [Ahmed FADALY]

Egyptian National Movement Party [Gen. Raouf EL SAYED]

Egyptian Social Democratic Party [Farid ZAHRAN]

El Ghad Party [Moussa Mostafa MOUSSA]

El Serh El Masry el Hor [Tarek Ahmed Abbas NADIM]

Eradet Geel Party [Tayseer MATAR]

Free Egyptians Party [Essam KHALIL]

Freedom Party [Mamdouuh HASSAN]

Justice Party

Homeland’s Protector Party [Lt. Gen. (retired) Galal AL-HARIDI]

Modern Egypt Party [Nabil DEIBIS]

My Homeland Egypt Party [Gen. Seif El Islam ABDEL BARY ]

Nation's Future Party (Mostaqbal Watan) [Abdel Wahab Abdel RAZEQ]

National Progressive Unionist (Tagammu) Party [Sayed Abdel AAL]

Reform and Development Party [Mohamad Anwar al-SADAT]

Republican People’s Party [Hazim AMR]

Revolutionary Guards Party [Magdy EL-SHARIF]

Wafd Party [Abdel Sanad YAMAMA]
International Law Organization Participation: accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; non-party state to the ICCt
Diplomatic Representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Motaz Mounir ZAHRAN (since 17 September 2020)

chancery: 3521 International Court NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 895-5400; [1] (202) 895-5408

FAX: [1] (202) 244-5131; [1] (202) 244-4319

email address and website:

consulate(s) general: Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, New York
Diplomatic Representation from US: chief of mission: Ambassador Herro MUSTAFA GARG (since November 2023)

embassy: 5 Tawfik Diab St., Garden City, Cairo

mailing address: 7700 Cairo Place, Washington DC 20512-7700

telephone: [20-2] 2797-3300

FAX: [20-2] 2797-3200

email address and website:
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