Egypt Government

What is the capital of Egypt?

Country Name Egypt
Full Country Name Arab Republic of Egypt
Local - Long Jumhuriyat Misr al-Arabiyah
Local - Short Misr
Former Name United Arab Republic (with Syria)
Etymology- history of name the English name "Egypt" derives from the ancient Greek name for the country "Aigyptos"; the Arabic name "Misr" can be traced to the ancient Akkadian "misru" meaning border or frontier
Government Type presidential republic
Capital Name Cairo
Capital - geographic coordinate 30 03 N, 31 15 E
Capital Time Difference UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Independence 28 February 1922 (from UK protectorate status; the revolution that began on 23 July 1952 led to a republic being declared on 18 June 1953 and all British troops withdrawn on 18 June 1956); note - it was ca. 3200 B.C. that the Two Lands of Upper (southern) and Lower (northern) Egypt were first united politically
National Holiday Revolution Day, 23 July (1952)
Constitution history: several previous; latest approved by a constitutional committee in December 2013, approved by referendum held on 14-15 January 2014, ratified by interim president on 19 January 2014

amendments: proposed by the president of the republic or by one-fifth of the House of Representatives members; a decision to accept the proposal requires majority vote by House members; passage of amendment requires a two-thirds majority vote by House members and passage by majority vote in a referendum; articles of reelection of the president and principles of freedom not amendable unless the amendment "brings more guarantees"

Egypt Capital City Map

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Egypt Government and Politics

Who is the president of Egypt?

Executive Branch:

chief of state: President Abdelfattah ELSISI (since 8 June 2014)

head of government: Prime Minister Mostafa MADBOULY (since 7 June 2018)

cabinet: Cabinet ministers nominated by the executive branch and approved by the House of Representatives

elections/appointments: president elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 6-year term (eligible for 3 consecutive terms); election last held on 26-28 March 2018 (next to be held in 2024); prime minister appointed by the president, approved by the House of Representatives; note - following a constitutional amendment approved by referendum in April 2019, the presidential term was extended from 4 to 6 years and eligibility extended to 3 consecutive terms

election results: Abdelfattah ELSISI reelected president in first round; percent of valid votes cast - Abdelfattah ELSISI (independent) 97.1%, Moussa Mostafa MOUSSA (El Ghad Party) 2.9%; note - more than 7% of ballots cast were deemed invalid

Citizenship Criteria:

citizenship by birth: no

citizenship by descent only: if the father was born in Egypt

dual citizenship recognized: only with prior permission from the government

residency requirement for naturalization: 10 years

Legal System:

mixed legal system based on Napoleonic civil and penal law, Islamic religious law, and vestiges of colonial-era laws; judicial review of the constitutionality of laws by the Supreme Constitutional Court

Suffrage:

18 years of age; universal and compulsory

Legislative Branch:

description:

unicameral House of Representatives (Majlis Al-Nowaab) (596 seats; 448 members directly elected by individual candidacy system, 120 members - with quotas for women, youth, Christians and workers - elected in party-list constituencies by simple majority popular vote, and 28 members appointed by the president; members serve 5-year terms; note - inaugural session held on 10 January 2016

note: a referendum held in April 2019, approved a constitutional amendment - effective following the 2020 election - to restore the upper chamber of the legislative body, designated the Senate, with 180 seats - 60 members to be appointed by the president and 120 members to be directly elected; the amendment also calls for the reduction of the existing People's Assembly from 596 to 450 seats

elections: multi-phase election completed on 16 December 2015 (next to be held in 2020)

election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party -- Free Egyptians Party 65, Future of the Nation 53, New Wafd Party 36, Homeland's Protector Party 18, Republican People's Party 13, Congress Party 12, Al-Nour Party 11, Conservative Party 6, Democratic Peace Party 5, Egyptian National Movement 4, Egyptian Social Democratic Party 4, Modern Egypt Party 4, Freedom Party 3, My Homeland Egypt Party 3, Reform and Development Party 3, National Progressive Unionist Party 2, Arab Democratic Nasserist Party 1, El Serh El Masry el Hor 1, Revolutionary Guards Party 1, independent 351; composition - men 507, women 89, percent of women 14.9%

Note: a referendum held in April 2019 approved a constitutional amendment - effective for the next election - allows the executive branch to restore the upper chamber of the legislative body with 180 seats - 60 members to be appointed by the president and 120 members to be directly elected; the amendment also calls for the reduction of the existing House of Representatives membership from 596 to 450 seats

Judicial Branch:

highest court(s): Supreme Constitutional Court or SCC (consists of the court president and 10 justices); the SCC serves as the final court of arbitration on the constitutionality of laws and conflicts between lower courts regarding jurisdiction and rulings; Court of Cassation (CC) (consists of the court president and 550 judges organized in circuits with cases heard by panels of 5 judges); the CC is the highest appeals body for civil and criminal cases, also known as “ordinary justices"; Supreme Administrative Court (SAC) - consists of the court president and organized in circuits with cases heard by panels of 5 judges); the SAC is the highest court of the State Council

judge selection and term of office: under the 2014 constitution, all judges and justices selected by the Supreme Judiciary Council and appointed by the president of the Republic; judges appointed for life

subordinate courts: Courts of Appeal; Courts of First Instance; courts of limited jurisdiction; Family Court (established in 2004)

Regions or States:

27 governorates (muhafazat, singular - muhafazat); Ad Daqahliyah, Al Bahr al Ahmar (Red Sea), Al Buhayrah, Al Fayyum, Al Gharbiyah, Al Iskandariyah (Alexandria), Al Isma'iliyah (Ismailia), Al Jizah (Giza), Al Minufiyah, Al Minya, Al Qahirah (Cairo), Al Qalyubiyah, Al Uqsur (Luxor), Al Wadi al Jadid (New Valley), As Suways (Suez), Ash Sharqiyah, Aswan, Asyut, Bani Suwayf, Bur Sa'id (Port Said), Dumyat (Damietta), Janub Sina' (South Sinai), Kafr ash Shaykh, Matruh, Qina, Shamal Sina' (North Sinai), Suhaj

Political Parties and Leaders:

Al-Nour [Yunis MAKHYUN]

Arab Democratic Nasserist Party [Sayed Abdel GHANY]

Congress Party [Omar Mokhtar SEMEIDA]

Conservative Party [Akmal KOURTAM]

Democratic Peace Party [Ahmed FADALY]

Egyptian National Movement Party [Gen. Raouf EL SAYED]

Egyptian Social Democratic Party [Farid ZAHRAN]

El Ghad Party [Moussa Mostafa MOUSSA]

El Serh El Masry el Hor [Tarek Ahmed Abbas Nadim]

Freedom Party [Salah HASSABALAH]

Free Egyptians Party [Essam KHALIL]

Homeland’s Protector Party [Lt. Gen. (retired) Galal AL-HARIDI]

Modern Egypt Party [Nabil DEIBIS]

Mostaqbal Watan (Future of the Nation) Party [Mohamed Ashraf RASHAD]

My Homeland Egypt Party [Qadry ABU HUSSEIN]

National Progressive Unionist (Tagammu) Party [Sayed Abdel AAL]

New Wafd Party [Bahaa ABU SHOUSA]

Reform and Development Party [Mohamad Anwar al-SADAT]

Republican People’s Party [Hazim OMAR]

Revolutionary Guards Party [Magdy EL-SHARIF]

International Law Organization Participation:

accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; non-party state to the ICCt

International Organization Participation:

ABEDA, AfDB, AFESD, AMF, AU, BSEC (observer), CAEU, CD, CICA, COMESA, D-8, EBRD, FAO, G-15, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, LAS, MIGA, MINURSO, MINUSMA, MONUSCO, NAM, OAPEC, OAS (observer), OIC, OIF, OSCE (partner), PCA, UN, UN Security Council (temporary), UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMISS, UNOCI, UNRWA, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic Representation in the US:

chief of mission: Ambassador Yasser REDA (since 19 September 2015)

chancery: 3521 International Court NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 895-5400

FAX: [1] (202) 244-5131

consulate(s) general: Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, New York

Diplomatic Representation from US:

chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Thomas H. GOLDBERGER (since 30 June 2017)

embassy: 5 Tawfik Diab St., Garden City, Cairo

mailing address: Unit 64900, Box 15, APO AE 09839-4900; 5 Tawfik Diab Street, Garden City, Cairo

telephone: [20-2] 2797-3300

FAX: [20-2] 2797-3200

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