Chad Government

What is the capital of Chad?

Country Name Chad
Full Country Name Republic of Chad
Local - Long Republique du Tchad/Jumhuriyat Tshad
Local - Short Tchad/Tshad
Etymology- history of name named for Lake Chad, which lies along the country's western border; the word "tsade" means "large body of water" or "lake" in several local native languages

note: the only country whose name is composed of a single syllable with a single vowel
Government Type presidential republic
Capital Name N'Djamena
Capital - geographic coordinate 12 06 N, 15 02 E
Capital Time Difference UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Independence 11 August 1960 (from France)
National Holiday Independence Day, 11 August (1960)
Constitution history: several previous; latest adopted by National Transitional Council 27 June 2023, approved by referendum 17 December, verified by Chad Supreme Court 28 December, promulgated 1 January 2024

amendments: previous process: proposed as a revision by the president of the republic after a Council of Ministers (cabinet) decision or by the National Assembly; approval for consideration of a revision requires at least three-fifths majority vote by the Assembly; passage requires approval by referendum or at least two-thirds majority vote by the Assembly

Chad Capital City Map

Source: Google Maps

Chad Government and Politics

Who is the president of Chad?

Executive Branch: chief of state: Transitional President Mahamat Idriss DEBY (since 20 April 2021); note - on 20 April 2021, newly reelected President Idriss DEBY Itno, Lt. Gen., died of injuries sustained following clashes between government forces he was commanding and insurgents in the northern part of the country; following his death, Mahamat Idriss DEBY took control of the country and dismissed the Chadian parliament, establishing a Transitional Military Council (TMC) and promising elections within 18 months; the transition was extended for 24 months and the TMC was dissolved in October 2022, postponing elections until 31 October 2024

head of government: Prime Minister Succès MASRA (since 1 January 2024)

cabinet: Council of Ministers

elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (no term limits); election last held on 11 April 2021; note - on 20 April 2021, military officials suspended the constitution and formed a Transitional Military Council, pledging to hold democratic elections by October 2022 but have since delayed elections until 31 October 2024

election results:

2021: Lt. Gen. Idriss DEBY Itno reelected transitional president; percent of vote - Lt. Gen. Idriss DEBY (MPS) 79.3%, Pahimi PADACKET Albert (RNDT) 10.3%, Lydie BEASSEMDA (Party for Democracy and Independence) 3.2%, other 7.2%

2016: Lt. Gen. Idriss DEBY Itno reelected president in first round; percent of vote - Lt. Gen. Idriss DEBY (MPS) 61.6%, Saleh KEBZABO (UNDR) 12.8%, Laokein Kourayo MEDAR (CTPD) 10.7%, Djimrangar DADNADJI (CAP-SUR) 5.1%, other 9.8%
Citizenship Criteria: citizenship by birth: no

citizenship by descent only: both parents must be citizens of Chad

dual citizenship recognized: Chadian law does not address dual citizenship

residency requirement for naturalization: 15 years
Legal System: mixed legal system of civil and customary law
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
Legislative Branch: description: formerly a unicameral National Assembly or Assemblée Nationale (188 seats; 163 directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote and 25 directly elected in single-seat constituencies by absolute majority vote with a second round if needed; members serve 4-year terms); note - on 5 October 2021, Interim President Mahamat Idriss DEBY installed 93 members of an interim parliament, called the National Transitional Council (NTC), replacing the National Assembly, which was disbanded after he took control of the country on 20 April 2021; according to DEBY, the NTC will act as a national assembly of transition until the country’s next elections take place

elections: members of the so called "National Transitional Council" were installed by Interim President DEBY on 5 October 2021 (next parliamentary elections to be held September 2022)

election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NA; composition - men 64, women 29, percent of women 31.2%

note: the National Assembly mandate was extended to 2020, reportedly due to a lack of funding for the scheduled 2015 election; the MPS has held a majority in the NA since 1997
Judicial Branch: highest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of the chief justice, 3 chamber presidents, and 12 judges or councilors and divided into 3 chambers); Constitutional Council (consists of 3 judges and 6 jurists)

judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court chief justice selected by the president; councilors - 8 designated by the president and 7 by the speaker of the National Assembly; chief justice and councilors appointed for life; Constitutional Council judges - 2 appointed by the president and 1 by the speaker of the National Assembly; jurists - 3 each by the president and by the speaker of the National Assembly; judges appointed for 9-year terms

subordinate courts: High Court of Justice; Courts of Appeal; tribunals; justices of the peace
Regions or States: 23 provinces (provinces, singular - province)

Barh-El-Gazel, Batha, Borkou, Chari-Baguirmi, Ennedi-Est, Ennedi-Ouest, Guera, Hadjer-Lamis, Kanem, Lac, Logone Occidental, Logone Oriental, Mandoul, Mayo-Kebbi-Est, Mayo-Kebbi-Ouest, Moyen-Chari, N'Djamena, Ouaddai, Salamat, Sila, Tandjile, Tibesti, Wadi-Fira
Political Parties and Leaders: Chadian Convention for Peace and Development or CTPD [Laoukein Kourayo MEDARD]

Federation Action for the Republic or FAR [Ngarledjy YORONGAR]

National Rally for Development and Progress or Viva-RNDP [Dr. Nouradine Delwa Kassire COUMAKOYE]

National Union for Democracy and Renewal or UNDR [Saleh KEBZABO]

Party for Unity and Reconstruction or PUR

Patriotic Salvation Movement or MPS [formerly Idriss DEBY]

Rally for Democracy and Progress or RDP [Mahamat Allahou TAHER]

Rally of Chadian Nationalists/Awakening or RNDT/Le Reveil [Albert Pahimi PADACKE]

Social Democratic Party for a Change-over of Power or PDSA [Malloum YOBODA]

Union for Democracy and the Republic or UDR

Union for Renewal and Democracy or URD [Felix Romadoumngar NIALBE]

Transformers [Succès MASRA]

note 1: 19 additional parties each contributed one member

note 2: only parties with at least two seats in the last elected National Assembly (February 2011) included

note: on 5 October 2021, Interim President Mahamat Idriss DEBY appointed 93 members to the interim National Transitional Council (NTC); 30% of the NTC members were retained from parties previously represented in the National Assembly
International Law Organization Participation: has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
Diplomatic Representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador KITOKO GATA Ngoulou (since 30 June 2023)

chancery: 2401 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 652-1312

FAX: [1] (202) 578-0431

email address and website:
Diplomatic Representation from US: chief of mission: Ambassador Alexander LASKARIS (since 18 August 2022)

embassy: Rond-Point Chagoua, B.P. 413, N’Djamena

mailing address: 2410 N'Djamena Place, Washington DC 20521-2410

telephone: [235] 2251-5017

FAX: [235] 2253-9102

email address and website:
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