Burma Government

What is the capital of Burma?

Country Name Burma

Note: since 1989 the military authorities in Burma and the current parliamentary government have promoted the name Myanmar as a conventional name for their state; the US Government has not adopted the name
Full Country Name Union of Burma
Local - Long Pyidaungzu Thammada Myanma Naingngandaw (translated as the Republic of the Union of Myanmar)
Local - Short Myanma Naingngandaw
Former Name Socialist Republic of the Union of Burma, Union of Myanmar
Etymology- history of name Both "Burma" and "Myanmar" derive from the name of the majority Burmese Bamar ethnic group
Government Type Parliamentary republic
Capital Name Rangoon (Yangon); note - Nay Pyi Taw is the administrative capital
Capital - geographic coordinate 16 48 N, 96 09 E
Capital Time Difference UTC+6.5 (11.5 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Independence 4 January 1948 (from the UK)
National Holiday Independence Day, 4 January (1948); Union Day, 12 February (1947)
Constitution History: Previous 1947, 1974 (suspended until 2008); latest drafted 9 April 2008, approved by referendum 29 May 2008; amended 2015

Amendments: proposals require at least 20% approval by the Assembly of the Union membership; passage of amendments to sections of the constitution on basic principles, government structure, branches of government, state emergencies, and amendment procedures requires 75% approval by the Assembly and approval in a referendum by an absolute majority of registered voters; passage of amendments to other sections requires only 75% Assembly approval

Burma Capital City Map

Source: Google Maps

Burma Government and Politics

Who is the president of Burma?

Executive Branch: Chief of State: President WIN MYINT (since 30 March 2018); Vice Presidents MYINT SWE (since 16 March 2016) and HENRY VAN THIO (since 30 March 2016); note - President HTIN KYAW (since 30 March 2016) resigned on 21 March 2018; the president is both chief of state and head of government

Head of Government: President WIN MYINT (since 30 March 2018); Vice Presidents MYINT SWE (since 16 March 2016) and HENRY VAN THIO (since 30 March 2016

Cabinet: Cabinet appointments shared by the president and the commander-in-chief

Elections/Appointments: The president is indirectly elected by a simple majority vote by the full Assembly of the Union from among 3 vice-presidential candidates nominated by the Presidential Electoral College (consists of members of the lower and upper houses and military members); the other 2 candidates become vice-presidents (president elected for a 5-year term); election last held on 28 March 2018 (next to be held in 2021)

Election Results: WIN MYINT elected president; Assembly of the Union vote - WIN MYINT (NLD) 403, MYINT SWE (USDP) 211, HENRY VAN THIO (NLD) 18, 4 votes canceled (636 votes cast)

State Counselor: State Counselor AUNG SAN SUU KYI (since 6 April 2016); she concurrently serves as minister of foreign affairs and minister for the office of the president

Note: A parliamentary bill creating the position of "state counselor" was signed into law by former President HTIN KYAW on 6 April 2016; a state counselor serves the equivalent term of the president and is similar to a prime minister in that the holder acts as a link between the parliament and the executive branch
Citizenship Criteria: Citizenship by Birth: no

Citizenship by Descent Only: both parents must be citizens of Burma

Dual Citizenship Recognized: no

Residency Requirement for Naturalization: none

Note: an applicant for naturalization must be the child or spouse of a citizen
Legal System: A mixed legal system of English common law (as introduced in codifications designed for colonial India) and customary law
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
Legislative Branch: Description: bicameral Assembly of the Union or Pyidaungsu consists of:

House of Nationalities or Amyotha Hluttaw, (224 seats; 168 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by absolute majority vote with a second round if needed and 56 appointed by the military; members serve 5-year terms)

House of Representatives or Pyithu Hluttaw, (440 seats, currently 433; 330 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote and 110 appointed by the military; members serve 5-year terms)


House of Nationalities - last held on 8 November 2015 (next to be held in 2020)

House of Representatives - last held on 8 November 2015 (next to be held in 2020)

Election Results:

House of Nationalities - percent of vote by party - NLD 60.3%, USDP 4.9%, ANP 4.5%, SNLD 1.3%, other 4%, military appointees 25%; seats by party - NLD 135, USDP 11, ANP 10, SNLD 3, TNP 2, ZCD 2, other 3, independent 2, military appointees 56; composition - men 201, women 23, percent of women 10.3%

House of Representatives - percent of vote by party - NLD 58%, USDP 6.8%, ANP 2.7%, SNLD 2.7%, military 25%, other 4.8%; seats by party - NLD 255, USDP 30, ANP 12, SNLD 12, PNO 3, TNP 3, LNDP 2, ZCD 2, other 3, independent 1, canceled due to insurgence 7, military appointees 110; composition - men 392, women 41, percent of women 9.5%
Judicial Branch: Highest Court(s): Supreme Court of the Union (consists of the chief justice and 7-11 judges)

Judge Selection and Term of Office: chief justice and judges nominated by the president, with approval of the Lower House, and appointed by the president; judges normally serve until mandatory retirement at age 70

Subordinate Courts: High Courts of the Region; High Courts of the State; Court of the Self-Administered Division; Court of the Self-Administered Zone; district and township courts; special courts (for juvenile, municipal, and traffic offenses); courts-martial
Regions or States: 7 regions (taing-myar, singular - taing), 7 states (pyi ne-myar, singular - pyi ne), 1 union territory

Regions: Ayeyawady (Irrawaddy), Bago, Magway, Mandalay, Sagaing, Taninthayi, Yangon (Rangoon)

States: Chin, Kachin, Kayah, Kayin, Mon, Rakhine, Shan

Union Territory: Nay Pyi Taw
Political Parties and Leaders: All Mon Region Democracy Party or AMRDP (vacant)

Arakan National Party or ANP (vacant) (formed from the 2013 merger of the Rakhine Nationalities Development Party and the Arakan League for Democracy)

National Democratic Force or NDF [KHIN MAUNG SWE]

National League for Democracy or NLD [AUNG SAN SUU KYI]

National Unity Party or NUP [THAN TIN]

Pa-O National Organization or PNO [AUNG KHAM HTI]

Shan Nationalities Democratic Party or SNDP [SAI AIK PAUNG]

Shan Nationalities League for Democracy or SNLD [KHUN HTUN OO]

Ta'ang National Party or TNP [AIK MONE]

Union Solidarity and Development Party or USDP [THAN HTAY]

Zomi Congress for Democracy or ZCD [PU CIN SIAN THANG]

Numerous smaller parties
International Law Organization Participation: Has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt
International Organization Participation: ADB, ARF, ASEAN, BIMSTEC, CP, EAS, EITI (candidate country), FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITU, ITUC (NGOs), NAM, OPCW (signatory), SAARC (observer), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic Representation in the US: Chief of Mission: Ambassador AUNG LYNN (since 16 September 2016)

Chancery: 2300 S Street NW, Washington, DC 20008

Telephone: [1] (202) 332-3344

FAX: [1] (202) 332-4351

Consulate(s) General: Los Angeles, New York
Diplomatic Representation from US: Chief of Mission: Ambassador Scot MARCIEL (since 27 April 2016)

Embassy: 110 University Avenue, Kamayut Township, Rangoon

Mailing Address: Box B, APO AP 96546

Telephone: [95] (1) 536-509, 535-756, 538-038

FAX: [95] (1) 511-069
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