Bulgaria Geography

What is the terrain and geography like in Bulgaria?

Overview:

Bulgaria is a country of mountains, plains, and seacoast, occupying 110,000 square kilometers (43,000 square miles) of the Balkan Peninsula. It measures roughly 260 miles from east to west and about 150 miles from north to south. Much of the country is mountainous with only about 40% cultivated. The Danube River, Black Sea, and the Pirin and Rhodope Mountains provide natural borders on the north, east, and south. Flowing south into Greece are the unnavigable Struma, Maritsa, Mesta, and Arda Rivers, important sources of water for irrigation. The Iskar River is the longest river. The Balkan range extends across the north-central part of the country, separating the wheatgrowing Dobrudzha region from the Thracian plain, where vegetables, fruits, grapes, and tobacco are cultivated.

Geography - note:

strategic location near Turkish Straits; controls key land routes from Europe to Middle East and Asia

Climate:

The climate is usually designated as "continental, with many micro-climates." From May to November, the climate is pleasantly warm and sunny. Sofia is on the same latitude as Rome, but is 1,500 feet higher in elevation and has a climate similar to the Intermountain West of the United States. Plants, flowers, and fruits common to Britain and France grow well here, but the climate is too cold for citrus. November through April are snowy and cold, with temperatures ranging between -5°F to 50°F in Sofia. Summer temperatures may reach 105°F on occasion but tend to hover around 70°-75°F, and humidity is moderate to low. During July, the mean temperature is 68.7°F (20.4°C); during January, 30.6°F (8°C). Mildew and insects are not significant factors.


Sofia's main climatic problem is winter smog, which is caused by industrial air pollution, soft-coal smoke, vehicle exhaust emissions, fog, and surrounding mountains that keep winds from blowing the smog away. Gray-brown dirt or coal dust and sand are scattered on Sofia's snow-covered streets in winter.


Winters may often be gray but are quite beautiful in the nearby mountains. Mount Vitosha (altitude 2,290 m.), with its ski resorts and runs and walking paths, overlook the city. Trees and flowers make Sofia a more colorful city the rest of the year. Rainfall is moderate, averaging 25 inches a year.

Bulgaria Use of Natural Resources

Bulgaria Environment

Climate:

The climate is usually designated as "continental, with many micro-climates." From May to November, the climate is pleasantly warm and sunny. Sofia is on the same latitude as Rome, but is 1,500 feet higher in elevation and has a climate similar to the Intermountain West of the United States. Plants, flowers, and fruits common to Britain and France grow well here, but the climate is too cold for citrus. November through April are snowy and cold, with temperatures ranging between -5°F to 50°F in Sofia. Summer temperatures may reach 105°F on occasion but tend to hover around 70°-75°F, and humidity is moderate to low. During July, the mean temperature is 68.7°F (20.4°C); during January, 30.6°F (8°C). Mildew and insects are not significant factors.


Sofia's main climatic problem is winter smog, which is caused by industrial air pollution, soft-coal smoke, vehicle exhaust emissions, fog, and surrounding mountains that keep winds from blowing the smog away. Gray-brown dirt or coal dust and sand are scattered on Sofia's snow-covered streets in winter.


Winters may often be gray but are quite beautiful in the nearby mountains. Mount Vitosha (altitude 2,290 m.), with its ski resorts and runs and walking paths, overlook the city. Trees and flowers make Sofia a more colorful city the rest of the year. Rainfall is moderate, averaging 25 inches a year.

Terrain:

mostly mountains with lowlands in north and southeast

Natural Resources:

bauxite, copper, lead, zinc, coal, timber, arable land

Natural Hazards:

earthquakes, landslides

Irrigated Land:

404 Square Miles
1,046 Square Kilometers

Environmental Issues:

air pollution from industrial emissions; rivers polluted from raw sewage, heavy metals, detergents; deforestation; forest damage from air pollution and resulting acid rain; soil contamination from heavy metals from metallurgical plants and industrial wastes

Environment - International Agreements:

party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Bulgaria Geography

Geographic Location Europe
Total Area 42,810 Square Miles
110,879 Square Kilometers
Land Area 41,888 Square Miles
108,489 Square Kilometers
Water Area 923 Square Miles
2,390 Square Kilometers
Land Boundaries 1,123 Miles
1,808 Kilometers
Irrigated Land 404 Square Miles
1,046 Square Kilometers
Border Countries Greece 494 km, The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia 148 km, Romania 608 km, Serbia and Montenegro 318 km, Turkey 240 km
Coastline 220 Miles
354 Kilometers
Geographic Coordinates 43 00 N, 25 00 E
Terrain mostly mountains with lowlands in north and southeast
Highest Point 2,925 Meters
Highest Point Location Musala 2,925 m
Lowest Point Location Black Sea 0 m
Natural Resources bauxite, copper, lead, zinc, coal, timber, arable land
Time Zone UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Daylight saving time +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
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