Brazil Government

What is the capital of Brazil?

Country Name Brazil
Full Country Name Federative Republic of Brazil
Local - Long República Federativa do Brasil
Local - Short Brasil
Etymology- history of name the country name derives from the brazilwood tree that used to grow plentifully along the coast of Brazil and that was used to produce a deep red dye
Government Type federal presidential republic
Capital Name Brasília
Capital - geographic coordinate 15 47 S, 47 55 W
Capital Time Difference UTC-3 (2 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

time zone note: Brazil has four time zones, including one for the Fernando de Noronha Islands
Daylight Savings Time +1hr, begins third Sunday in October; ends third Sunday in February
Independence 7 September 1822 (from Portugal)
National Holiday Independence Day, 7 September (1822)
Constitution history: several previous; latest ratified 5 October 1988

amendments: proposed by at least one third of either house of the National Congress, by the president of the republic, or by simple majority vote by more than half of the state legislative assemblies; passage requires at least three-fifths majority vote by both houses in each of two readings; constitutional provisions affecting the federal form of government, separation of powers, suffrage, or individual rights and guarantees cannot be amended; amended many times, last in 2022

Brazil Capital City Map

Source: Google Maps

Brazil Government and Politics

Who is the president of Brazil?

Executive Branch: chief of state: President Luiz Inácio LULA da Silva (since 1 January 2023); Vice President Geraldo José Rodrigues ALCKMIN Filho (since 1 January 2023); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government

head of government: President Luiz Inácio LULA da Silva (since 1 January 2023); Vice President Geraldo José Rodrigues ALCKMIN Filho (since 1 January 2023)

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president

elections/appointments: president and vice president directly elected on the same ballot by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 4-year term (eligible for a single consecutive term and additional terms after at least one term has elapsed); election last held on 2 October 2022 with runoff on 30 October 2022 (next to be held on 4 October 2026)

election results:

2022: Luiz Inácio LULA da Silva elected president in second round; percent of vote in first round - Luiz Inácio LULA da Silva (PT) 48.4%, Jair BOLSONARO (PSL) 43.2%, Simone Nassar TEBET (MDB) 4.2%, Ciro GOMES (PDT) 3%, other 1.2%; percent of vote in second round - Luiz Inácio LULA da Silva (PT) 50.9%, Jair BOLSONARO (PSL) 49.1%

2018: Jair BOLSONARO elected president in second round; percent of vote in first round - Jair BOLSONARO (PSL) 46%, Fernando HADDAD (PT) 29.3%, Ciro GOMEZ (PDT) 12.5%, Geraldo ALCKMIN (PSDB) 4.8%, other 7.4%; percent of vote in second round - Jair BOLSONARO (PSL) 55.1%, Fernando HADDAD (PT) 44.9%
Citizenship Criteria: citizenship by birth: yes

citizenship by descent only: yes

dual citizenship recognized: yes

residency requirement for naturalization: 4 years
Legal System: civil law; note - a new civil law code was enacted in 2002 replacing the 1916 code
Suffrage: voluntary between 16 to 18 years of age, over 70, and if illiterate; compulsory between 18 to 70 years of age; note - military conscripts by law cannot vote
Legislative Branch: description: bicameral National Congress or Congresso Nacional consists of:

Federal Senate or Senado Federal (81 seats; 3 members each from 26 states and 3 from the federal district directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by simple majority vote to serve 8-year terms, with one-third and two-thirds of the membership elected alternately every 4 years)

Chamber of Deputies or Camara dos Deputados (513 seats; members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by open party-list proportional representation vote to serve 4-year terms)


Federal Senate - last held on 2 October 2022 for one-third of the Senate (next to be held on 4 October 2026 for two-thirds of the seats)

Chamber of Deputies - last held on 2 October 2022 (next to be held on 4 October 2026)

election results:

Federal Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PL 13, Brazil Union 12, MBD 10, PSD 10, PT 9, Progressistas 7, Podemos 6, PSDB 4, Republicans 3, PDT 2, Cidadania 1, PSB 1, PSC 1, PROS 1, REDE 1; composition - men 66, women 15, percent of women 18.5%

Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PL 99, PT 67, Brazil Union 59, PP 47, MDB 42, PSD 42, Republicans 41, PDT 17, PSB 14, PSDB 13, Podemos 12, PSOL 12, Avante 7, PCdoB 6, PSC 6, PV 6, Cidadania 5, Patriota 4, PROS 4, SD 4, NOVO 3, REDE 2, PTB 1; composition - men 423, women 90, percent of women 17.5%; note - total National Congress percent of women 17.7%
Judicial Branch: highest court(s): Supreme Federal Court or Supremo Tribunal Federal (consists of 11 justices)

judge selection and term of office: justices appointed by the president and approved by the Federal Senate; justices appointed to serve until mandatory retirement at age 75

subordinate courts: Tribunal of the Union, Federal Appeals Court, Superior Court of Justice, Superior Electoral Court, regional federal courts; state court system
Regions or States: 26 states (estados, singular - estado) and 1 federal district* (distrito federal)

Acre, Alagoas, Amapa, Amazonas, Bahia, Ceara, Distrito Federal*, Espirito Santo, Goias, Maranhao, Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul, Minas Gerais, Para, Paraiba, Parana, Pernambuco, Piaui, Rio de Janeiro, Rio Grande do Norte, Rio Grande do Sul, Rondonia, Roraima, Santa Catarina, Sao Paulo, Sergipe, Tocantins
Political Parties and Leaders: Act (Agir) [Daniel TOURINHO] (formerly Christian Labor Party or PTC)

Avante [Luis Henrique de Oliveira RESENDE] (formerly Labor Party of Brazil or PTdoB)

Brazil Union (União Brasil); note - founded from a merger between the Democrats (DEM) and the Social Liberal Party (PSL)

Brazilian Communist Party or PCB [Astrogildo PEREIRA]

Brazilian Democratic Movement or MDB [Luiz Felipe Baleia TENUTO Rossi]

Brazilian Labor Party or PTB [Kassyo Santos RAMOS]

Brazilian Renewal Labor Party or PRTB [Júlio Cezar FIDELIX da Cruz]

Brazilian Labor Party or PTB

Brazilian Social Democracy Party or PSDB [Bruno Cavalcanti de ARAÚJO]

Brazilian Socialist Party or PSB [Carlos Roberto SIQUEIRA de Barros]

Christian Democracy or DC [José Maria EYMAEL] (formerly Christian Social

Cidadania [Roberto João Pereira FREIRE] (formerly Popular Socialist Party or PPS)

Communist Party of Brazil or PCdoB [Luciana SANTOS]

Democratic Labor Party or PDT [Ciro FERREIRA Gomes]

Democratic Party or PSDC

Democrats or DEM [Jose AGRIPINO] (formerly Liberal Front Party or PFL); note - dissolved in February 2022

Green Party or PV [José Luiz PENNA]

Liberal Party or PL [Valdemar Costa Neto] (formerly Party of the Republic or PR)

National Mobilization Party or PMN [Antonio Carlos Bosco MASSAROLLO]

New Party or NOVO [Eduardo RIBEIRO]

Patriota [Ovasco RESENDE] (formerly National Ecologic Party or PEN)

Podemos [Renata ABREU] (formerly National Labor Party or PTN)

Progressive Party (Progressistas) or PP [Ciro NOGUEIRA Lima Filho]

Republican Social Order Party or PROS [Euripedes JUNIOR]

Republicans (Republicanos) [Marcos Antônio PEREIRA] (formerly Brazilian Republican Party or PRB)

Social Christian Party or PSC [Everaldo Dias PEREIRA]

Social Democratic Party or PSD [Alfredo COATIT Neto]

Social Liberal Party or PSL [Luciano Caldas BIVAR]

Socialism and Freedom Party or PSOL [Juliano MEDEIROS]

Solidarity or SD [Paulinho DA FORÇA]

Sustainability Network or REDE [Marina SILVA]

United Socialist Workers' Party or PSTU [José Maria DE ALMEIDA]

Workers' Cause Party or PCO [Rui Costa PIMENTA]

Workers' Party or PT [Gleisi Helena HOFFMANN]
International Law Organization Participation: has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
International Organization Participation: AfDB (nonregional member), BIS, BRICS, CAN (associate), CD, CELAC, CPLP, FAO, FATF, G-15, G-20, G-24, G-5, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAES, LAIA, LAS (observer), Mercosur, MIGA, MINURSO, MINUSTAH, MONUSCO, NAM (observer), NSG, OAS, OECD (enhanced engagement), OPANAL, OPCW, Paris Club (associate), PCA, PROSUR, SICA (observer), UN, UNASUR, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNHRC, UNIDO, UNISFA, UNIFIL, Union Latina, UNISFA, UNITAR, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNOCI, UNOOSA, UNRWA, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic Representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Maria Luiza Ribeiro VIOTTI (since 30 June 2023)

chancery: 3006 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 238-2700

FAX: [1] (202) 238-2827

email address and website:

consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Hartford (CT), Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New York, San Francisco, Washington, DC
Diplomatic Representation from US: chief of mission: Ambassador Elizabeth Frawley BAGLEY (since 5 February 2023)

embassy: SES - Avenida das Nações, Quadra 801, Lote 3, 70403-900 - Brasília, DF

mailing address: 7500 Brasilia Place, Washington DC 20521-7500

telephone: [55] (61) 3312-7000

FAX: [55] (61) 3225-9136

email address and website:

consulate(s) general: Recife, Porto Alegre, Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo

branch office(s): Belo Horizonte
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