Brazil Government

What is the capital of Brazil?

Country Name Brazil
Full Country Name Federative Republic of Brazil
Local - Long Republica Federativa do Brasil
Local - Short Brasil
Etymology- history of name The country's name derives from the brazilwood tree that used to grow plentifully along the coast of Brazil and that was used to produce a deep red dye
Government Type Federal presidential republic
Capital Name Brasilia
Capital - geographic coordinate 15 47 S, 47 55 W
Capital Time Difference UTC-3 (2 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)

Note: Brazil has three time zones, including one for the Fernando de Noronha Islands

Note: Brazil is divided into three time zones, including one for the Fernando de Noronha Islands
Daylight Savings Time +1hr, begins third Sunday in October; ends third Sunday in February
Independence 7 September 1822 (from Portugal)
National Holiday Independence Day, 7 September (1822)
Constitution Several previous; latest ratified 5 October 1988; amended many times, last in 2016

Brazil Capital City Map

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Brazil Government and Politics

Who is the president of Brazil?

Executive Branch: Chief of State: President Jair BOLSONARO (since 1 January 2019); Vice President Antonio Hamilton Martins MOURAO (since 1 January 2019); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government

Head of Government: President Jair BOLSONARO (since 1 January 2019); Vice President Antonio Hamilton Martins MOURAO (since 1 January 2019)

Cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president

Elections/Appointments: president and vice president directly elected on the same ballot by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a single 4-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 7 October 2018 with a runoff on 28 October 2018 (next to be held in October 2022)

Election Results: Jair BOLSONARO elected president in second round; percent of vote in first round - Jair BOLSONARO (PSL) 46%, Fernando HADDAD (PT) 29.3%, Ciro GOMEZ (PDT) 12.5%, Geraldo ALCKMIN (PSDB) 4.8%, other 7.4%; percent of vote in second round - Jair BOLSONARO (PSL) 55.1%, Fernando HADDAD (PT) 44.9%
Citizenship Criteria: Citizenship by Birth: yes

Citizenship by Descent: yes

Dual Citizenship Recognized: yes

Residency Requirement for Naturalization: 4 years
Legal System: Civil law; note - a new civil law code was enacted in 2002 replacing the 1916 code
Suffrage: Voluntary between 16 to 18 years of age, over 70, and the illiterate; compulsory between 18 to 70 years of age; note - military conscripts by law cannot vote
Legislative Branch: Description: bicameral National Congress or Congresso Nacional consists of:

Federal Senate or Senado Federal (81 seats; 3 members each from 26 states and 3 from the federal district directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by a simple majority vote to serve 8-year terms, with one-third and two-thirds of the membership elected alternately every 4 years)

Chamber of Deputies or Camara dos Deputados (513 seats; members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote to serve 4-year terms)


Federal Senate - last held on 7 October 2018 for two-thirds of the Senate (next to be held in October 2022 for one-third of the Senate)

Chamber of Deputies - last held on 7 October 2018 (next to be held in October 2022)

Election Results:

Federal Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PMDB 7, PP 5, REDE 5, DEM 4, PSDB 4, PSDC 4, PSL 4, PT 4, PDT 2, PHS 2, PPS 2, PSB 2, PTB 2, Podemos 1, PR 1, PRB 1, PROS 1, PRP 1, PSC 1, SD 1; composition - men 70, women 11, percent of women 13.6%

Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PT 56, PSL 52, PP 37, PMDB 34, PSDC 34, PR 33, PSB 32, PRB 30, DEM 29, PSDB 29, PDT 28, SD 13, Podemos 11, PSOL 10, PTB 10, PCdoB 9, NOVO 8, PPS 8, PROS 8, PSC 8, Avante 7, PHS 6, Patriota 5, PRP 4, PV 4, PMN 3, PTC 2, DC 1, PPL 1, REDE 1; composition - men 462, women 51, percent of women 9.9%; total National Congress percent of women 10.4%
Judicial Branch: Highest Court(s): Supreme Federal Court or Supremo Tribunal Federal (consists of 11 justices)

Judge Selection and Term of Office: justices appointed by the president and approved by the Federal Senate; justices appointed to serve until mandatory retirement at age 75

Subordinate Courts: Tribunal of the Union, Federal Appeals Court, Superior Court of Justice, Superior Electoral Court, regional federal courts; state court system
Regions or States: 26 states (estados, singular - estado) and 1 federal district* (distrito federal); Acre, Alagoas, Amapa, Amazonas, Bahia, Ceara, Distrito Federal*, Espirito Santo, Goias, Maranhao, Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul, Minas Gerais, Para, Paraiba, Parana, Pernambuco, Piaui, Rio de Janeiro, Rio Grande do Norte, Rio Grande do Sul, Rondonia, Roraima, Santa Catarina, Sao Paulo, Sergipe, Tocantins
Political Parties and Leaders: Brazilian Communist Party or PCB [Ivan Martins PINHEIRO]

Brazilian Democratic Movement Party or PMDB [Michel TEMER]

Brazilian Labor Party or PTB [Cristiane BRASIL]

Brazilian Renewal Labor Party or PRTB [Jose Levy FIDELIX da Cruz]

Brazilian Republican Party or PRB [Marcos Antonio PEREIRA]

Brazilian Social Democracy Party or PSDB [Aecio NEVES]

Brazilian Socialist Party or PSB [Carlos Roberto SIQUEIRA de Barros]

Christian Labor Party or PTC [Daniel TOURINHO]

Christian Social Democratic Party or PSDC [Jose Maria EYMAEL]

Communist Party of Brazil or PCdoB [Jose Renato RABELO]

Democratic Labor Party or PDT [Carlos Roberto LUPI]

The Democrats or DEM [Jose AGRIPINO] (formerly Liberal Front Party or PFL)

Free Homeland Party or PPL [Sergio RUBENS]

Green Party or PV [Jose Luiz PENNA]

Humanist Party of Solidarity or PHS [Eduardo MACHADO]

Labor Party of Brazil or PTdoB [Luis Henrique de Oliveira RESENDE]

National Ecologic Party or PEN [Adilson Barroso OLIVEIRA]

National Labor Party or PTN [Jose Masci de ABREU]

National Mobilization Party or PMN [Telma RIBEIRO dos Santos]

Party of the Republic or PR [Alfredo NASCIMENTO]

Popular Socialist Party or PPS [Roberto Joao Pereira FREIRE]

Progressive Party or PP [Ciro NOGUEIRA]

Progressive Republican Party or PRP [Ovasco Roma Altimari RESENDE]

Republican Social Order Party or PROS [Euripedes JUNIOR]

Social Christian Party or PSC [Vitor Jorge Abdala NOSSEIS]

Social Democratic Party or PSD [Guilherme CAMPOS]

Social Liberal Party or PSL [Luciano Caldas BIVAR]

Socialism and Freedom Party or PSOL [Luiz ARAUJO]

Solidarity or SD [Paulo PEREIRA DA SILVA]

United Socialist Workers' Party or PSTU [Jose Maria DE ALMEIDA]

Workers' Cause Party or PCO [Rui Costa PIMENTA]

Workers' Party or PT [Rui FALCAO]
International Law Organization Participation: Has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
International Organization Participation: AfDB (nonregional member), BIS, BRICS, CAN (associate), CD, CELAC, CPLP, FAO, FATF, G-15, G-20, G-24, G-5, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAES, LAIA, LAS (observer), Mercosur, MIGA, MINURSO, MINUSTAH, MONUSCO, NAM (observer), NSG, OAS, OECD (enhanced engagement), OPANAL, OPCW, Paris Club (associate), PCA, SICA (observer), UN, UNASUR, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, Union Latina, UNISFA, UNITAR, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNOCI, UNRWA, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic Representation in the US: Chief of Mission: Ambassador Sergio Silva do AMARAL (since 16 September 2016)

Chancery: 3006 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008

Telephone: [1] (202) 238-2700

FAX: [1] (202) 238-2827

Consulate(s) General: Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Hartford (CT), Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New York, San Francisco, Washington, DC
Diplomatic Representation from US: Chief of Mission: Ambassador Michael MCKINLEY (since 19 December 2016)

Embassy: Avenida das Nacoes, Quadra 801, Lote 3, Distrito Federal Cep 70403-900, Brasilia

Mailing Address: Unit 7500, DPO, AA 34030

Telephone: [55] (61) 3312-7000

FAX: [55] (61) 3225-9136

Consulate(s) General: Recife, Rio de Janeiro, Sao Paulo
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