Where is Bosnia and Herzegovina located?

What countries border Bosnia and Herzegovina?

Bosnia and Herzegovina Weather

What is the current weather in Bosnia and Herzegovina?

Bosnia and Herzegovina Facts and Culture

What is Bosnia and Herzegovina famous for?

  • Cultural Attributes: Bosnians are regarded as friendly, warm, and outgoing. They enjoy merak (a relaxed pace of life). Each major group emphasizes... More
  • Family: A rural household typically consists of grandparents, parents, and two or more children. The grandfather or father has a dominant... More
  • Personal Apperance: Western-style clothing is worn by most people, and urban residents pay special attention to their appearance and labels or brand... More
  • Recreation: Bosnia and Herzegovina is known for winter sports. Its excellent ski slopes became especially popular after the 1984 Winter Olympics... More
  • Diet: Pies are the centerpiece of the Bosnian menu. Burek or meat pie, zeljanica or spinach and cheese pie, cabbage pie,... More
  • Food and Recipes: The day begins with black, strong coffee, leading to breakfast in mid-morning. Lunch in the mid-afternoon is usually soup, meat... More
  • Visiting: Family and friends are fond of visiting, especially at weekends. People frequently sit for hours over a cup of coffee... More
  • Dating: Young married couples go out to fairs, cinemas, cafes, dance, and disco clubs. Rural youth gather in town squares. To be... More

Bosnia and Herzegovina Facts

What is the capital of Bosnia and Herzegovina?

Capital Sarajevo
Government Type parliamentary republic
Currency Konvertibilna markas (BAM)
Total Area 19,767 Square Miles
51,197 Square Kilometers
Location Southeastern Europe, bordering the Adriatic Sea and Croatia
Language Bosnian, Croatian, Serbian
GDP - real growth rate 3%
GDP - per capita (PPP) $11,000.00 (USD)

Bosnia and Herzegovina Demographics

What is the population of Bosnia and Herzegovina?

Ethnic Groups Serb 37.1%, Bosniak 48%, Croat 14.3%, other 0.6% (2000)
Languages The official language is Bosnian, a Slavic language that used to be known as Serbo-Croatian. According to ethnic and political affiliation, Bosnians may speak Serbian, Croatian or Bosnian. At school, both Cyrillic and Latin scripts are taught, which are used in the Federation and Serb Republic.
Nationality Noun Bosnian(s), Herzegovinian(s)
Population 3,835,586
Population Growth Rate -0.1%
Population in Major Urban Areas SARAJEVO (capital) 389,000
Urban Population 48.300000

Bosnia and Herzegovina Government

What type of government does Bosnia and Herzegovina have?

Executive Branch chief of state: Chairman of the Presidency Zeljko KOMSIC (chairman since 16 July 2023; presidency member since 20 November 2018 - Croat seat); Zeljka CVIJANOVIC (presidency member since 16 November 2022 - Serb seat); Denis BECIROVIC (presidency member since 16 November 2022 - Bosniak seat)

head of government: Chairman of the Council of Ministers Borjana KRISTO (since 25 January 2023)

cabinet: Council of Ministers nominated by the council chairman, approved by the state-level House of Representatives

elections/appointments: 3-member presidency (1 Bosniak and 1 Croat elected from the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and 1 Serb elected from the Republika Srpska) directly elected by simple majority popular vote for a 4-year term (eligible for a second term but then ineligible for 4 years); the presidency chairpersonship rotates every 8 months with the new member of the presidency elected with the highest number of votes starting the new mandate as chair; election last held on 2 October 2022 (next to be held in October 2026); the chairman of the Council of Ministers appointed by the presidency and confirmed by the state-level House of Representatives

election results:

2022: percent of vote - Denis BECIROVIC - (SDP BiH) 57.4% - Bosniak seat; Zeljko KOMSIC (DF) 55.8% - Croat seat; Zeljka CVIJANOVIC (SNSD) 51.7% - Serb seat

2018: percent of vote - Milorad DODIK (SNSD) 53.9% - Serb seat; Zeljko KOMSIC (DF) 52.6% - Croat seat; Sefik DZAFEROVIC (SDA) 36.6% - Bosniak seat

note: President of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina Lidiia BRADARA (since 28 February 2023); Vice Presidents Refik LENDO (since 28 February 2023) and Igor STOJANOVIC (since 28 February 2023); President of the Republika Srpska Milorad DODIK (since 15 November 2022); Vice Presidents Camil DURAKOVIC (since 15 November 2022) and Davor PRANJIC (since 15 November 2022)
Suffrage 18 years of age, 16 if employed; universal
Citizenship citizenship by birth: no

citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Bosnia and Herzegovina

dual citizenship recognized: yes, provided there is a bilateral agreement with the other state

residency requirement for naturalization: 8 years
National Holiday Independence Day, 1 March (1992) and Statehood Day, 25 November (1943) - both observed in the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina entity; Victory Day, 9 May (1945) and Dayton Agreement Day, 21 November (1995) - both observed in the Republika Srpska entity

note: there is no national-level holiday
Constitution history: 14 December 1995 (constitution included as part of the Dayton Peace Accords); note - each of the political entities has its own constitution

amendments: decided by the Parliamentary Assembly, including a two-thirds majority vote of members present in the House of Representatives; the constitutional article on human rights and fundamental freedoms cannot be amended; amended several times, last in 2009
Independence 1 March 1992 (from Yugoslavia); note - referendum for independence completed on 1 March 1992; independence declared on 3 March 1992

Bosnia and Herzegovina Video

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Bosnia and Herzegovina Geography

What environmental issues does Bosnia and Herzegovina have?

Overview Bosnia and Herzegovina is located on the Balkan Peninsula. It is almost entirely landlocked, except for a narrow, undeveloped outlet to the Adriatic along the Neretva River, which gives Bosnia and Herzegovina 12.4 miles of Adriatic coastline. The size of Bosnia and Herzegovina is 19,781-sq. mi. The land boundaries are 850.8 miles long. Bosnia and Herzegovina consists of two land regions: Bosnia, the northern part, is mountainous, and covered with thick forests; Herzegovina, the southern part, is composed largely of rocky hills and flat farmland. Major rivers in Bosnia include the Bosna, Drina, Neretva, Vrbas, and Sava.
Climate Bosnia and Herzegovina has scenic, snowy winters, and a rainy season in the early summer. Summers are warm in the mountain valleys, but cool at higher elevations. The far northern part of the country has somewhat colder winters and warmer summers. The average January temperature in Sarajevo is 30°F. The average July temperature is 66°F.
Border Countries Croatia 932 km, Serbia and Montenegro 527 km
Environment - Current Issues Air pollution from metallurgical plants; sites for disposing of urban waste are limited; water shortages and destruction of infrastructure because of the 1992-95 civil strife; deforestation
Environment - International Agreements Party To: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Terrain Mountains and valleys

Bosnia and Herzegovina Economy

How big is the Bosnia and Herzegovina economy?

Economic Overview Bosnia and Herzegovina has a transitional economy with limited market reforms. The economy relies heavily on the export of metals, energy, textiles, and furniture as well as on remittances and foreign aid. A highly decentralized government hampers economic policy coordination and reform, while excessive bureaucracy and a segmented market discourage foreign investment. The economy is among the least competitive in the region. Foreign banks, primarily from Austria and Italy, control much of the banking sector, though the largest bank is a private domestic one. The konvertibilna marka (convertible mark) - the national currency introduced in 1998 - is pegged to the euro through a currency board arrangement, which has maintained confidence in the currency and has facilitated reliable trade links with European partners. Bosnia and Herzegovina became a full member of the Central European Free Trade Agreement in September 2007. In 2016, Bosnia began a three-year IMF loan program, but it has struggled to meet the economic reform benchmarks required to receive all funding installments.

Bosnia and Herzegovina's private sector is growing slowly, but foreign investment dropped sharply after 2007 and remains low. High unemployment remains the most serious macroeconomic problem. Successful implementation of a value-added tax in 2006 provided a steady source of revenue for the government and helped rein in gray-market activity, though public perceptions of government corruption and misuse of taxpayer money have encouraged a large informal economy to persist. National-level statistics have improved over time, but a large share of economic activity remains unofficial and unrecorded.

Bosnia and Herzegovina's top economic priorities are: acceleration of integration into the EU; strengthening the fiscal system; public administration reform; World Trade Organization membership; and securing economic growth by fostering a dynamic, competitive private sector.
Industries Steel, coal, iron ore, lead, zinc, manganese, bauxite, aluminum, motor vehicle assembly, textiles, tobacco products, wooden furniture, ammunition, domestic appliances, oil refining
Currency Name and Code Konvertibilna markas (BAM)
Export Partners Slovenia 16.5%, Italy 15.9%, Germany 12.1%, Croatia 11.5%, Austria 11.1%, Turkey 5.2%
Import Partners Croatia 19.3%, Germany 13.9%, Slovenia 13.8%, Italy 10.9%, Austria 5.7%, Hungary 5.2%, Turkey 4.5%

Bosnia and Herzegovina News and Current Events

What current events are happening in Bosnia and Herzegovina?
Source: Google News

Bosnia and Herzegovina Travel Information

What makes Bosnia and Herzegovina a unique country to travel to?

Country Description

Bosnia and Herzegovina has experienced significant progress in restoring peace and stability since the 1992-95 war; nonetheless, political tensions among its ethnic groups persist. Progress has been made to reconstruct the physical infrastructure that was devastated during the war, but roads, railroads, and other infrastructural improvements lag behind other countries in the region. Hotels and travel amenities are available in the capital, Sarajevo, and other major towns. In more remote areas of the country, public facilities vary in quality.


The overall crime rate throughout the country remains moderate, although Sarajevo has a consistently high rate of property crime. The Embassy has noted a recent sharp increase in criminal activity throughout Sarajevo in the form of armed robberies, residential break-ins, thefts from motor vehicles, and pick-pocketing. In many of these incidents, members of the international community were victims. On average, four motor vehicles are stolen in Bosnia and Herzegovina each day. The persistent difficult economic situation, including an officially reported unemployment rate of over 40 percent, may be fueling an increase in criminal aggressiveness. Be alert to your surroundings at all times, but in particular, after dark and in locations visited by foreigners such as cafés and restaurants. Take normal precautions to protect your property from theft and exercise common sense personal security measures, such as traveling in groups and staying in well-lighted areas after dark. Try to avoid confrontations with local citizens resulting from traffic incidents or public disagreements. Avoid carrying large sums of money on your person and avoid keeping money in one place. Be careful of beggars or others who may be attempting to distract you or directly pick your pocket. There are also documented cases of pick-pocketing and other scams to obtain money from foreign passengers aboard public transportation (especially aboard trams). Most local citizens in Bosnia and Herzegovina do not use backpacks. People wearing backpacks tend to attract the attention of pickpockets who quite easily gain access to backpacks without the owners’ knowledge. Keep purses and bags closed and avoid placing valuables in purses and bags. Items placed on the chair next to you, hung on the coat rack, or placed on the back of a chair are more easily stolen or pilfered.

Don’t buy counterfeit and pirated goods, even if they are widely available. Not only are the bootlegs illegal in the United States, if you purchase them you may also be breaking local law.

Criminal Penalties

While you are traveling in Bosnia and Herzegovina, you are subject to its laws even if you are a U.S. citizen. Foreign laws and legal systems can be vastly different from our own. In Bosnia and Herzegovina, photographing military or secure installations including airports, equipment, bridges, government checkpoints, troops, and the U.S. Embassy, is forbidden. If in doubt, please ask permission before taking photographs. Remember that there are some things that might be legal in the country you visit, but are still illegal in the United States. Engaging in sexual conduct with children or using or disseminating child pornography in a foreign country is a crime prosecutable in the United States. If you break local laws in Bosnia and Herzegovina, your U.S. passport won’t help you avoid arrest or prosecution. It is very important to know what is legal and what is not wherever you go.

Persons violating Bosnia and Herzegovina’s laws, even unknowingly, may be expelled, arrested, or imprisoned. Penalties for possessing, using, or trafficking illegal drugs in Bosnia and Herzegovina are severe, and convicted offenders can expect long jail sentences and heavy fines. While some countries will automatically notify the nearest U.S. embassy or consulate if a U.S. citizen is detained or arrested in a foreign country, that might not always be the case. To ensure that the United States is aware of your circumstances, request that the police and prison officials notify the nearest U.S. embassy or consulate as soon as you are arrested or detained overseas.

Arrest notifications in the host country:

While some countries will automatically notify the nearest U.S. embassy or consulate if a U.S. citizen is detained or arrested in a foreign country, that might not always be the case. To ensure that the United States is aware of your circumstances, request that the police and prison officials notify the nearest U.S. embassy or consulate as soon as you are arrested or detained overseas.


The official language is Bosnian, a Slavic language that used to be known as Serbo-Croatian. According to ethnic and political affiliation, Bosnians may speak Serbian, Croatian or Bosnian. At school, both Cyrillic and Latin scripts are taught, which are used in the Federation and Serb Republic.

Medical Facilities and Health Information

The lack of adequate medical facilities, especially outside Sarajevo, may cause problems for visitors. Because many medicines are not obtainable, travelers should bring their own supply of prescription drugs and preventive medicines. Private practitioners and dentists are becoming more common; however, quality of care varies and rarely meets U.S. or Western European standards. All major surgery is performed in public hospitals.

Individuals with asthma or other chronic respiratory conditions may react negatively to the air quality and allergens in Bosnia and Herzegovina, especially in Sarajevo. Additionally, persons with mental health conditions may not be able to locate English-speaking mental health providers or support groups.

Safety and Security

Landmines remain a problem in Bosnia and Herzegovina. As of 2013, there were still an estimated 10,000 minefields and an estimated 200,000 active land mines and unexploded ordnances throughout the country. The area of suspected landmine contamination is estimated at over 1,274 square kilometers-- more than 2.5% of the country’s territory. A new Bosnia and Herzegovina Mine Action Center (BHMAC) study of the mine problem in Bosnia and Herzegovina has identified a total of 1,631 local communities affected by mines. BHMAC estimates that mines directly affect the safety of 921,513 people. Since 1996, approximately 16,830 people have been injured due to mine accidents, of which almost 600 people died. While most urban areas have been largely cleared, you should still take special care when near the former lines of conflict, including the suburbs of Sarajevo. The de-mining community recommends staying on hard surfaced areas and out of abandoned buildings. Families traveling with children in Bosnia and Herzegovina should be especially aware of the danger posed by mines and unexploded ordnance. For more information about landmines and unexploded ordinances please visit the website of the Bosnia and Herzegovina Mine Action Center.

Localized political difficulties continue and random violence may occur with little or no warning, but politically-related violence in recent years has been rare.

In 2011, a terrorist shooting attack targeted the U.S. Embassy in Sarajevo, wounding one local police officer. Bosnian criminals may use firearms and explosives to settle personal, business, and political disputes. In 2010, local religious extremists were responsible for a bomb exploding outside a police station in Bugojno; one officer was killed. Local media outlets have reported at least 38 incidents involving the use of hand grenades in Bosnia and Herzegovina since 2011. The foreign community is rarely the target of such violence, but there is always the danger of being in the wrong place at the wrong time. While most Bosnian citizens appreciate the assistance of the international community, you might occasionally encounter anti-foreign sentiment.

Traffic Safety and Road Conditions

While in Bosnia and Herzegovina, you may encounter road conditions that differ significantly from those in the United States.

Road travel is possible throughout most of the country, but many roads are poorly maintained and are sometimes blocked because of landslides, de-mining activity, and traffic accidents. Bosnia and Herzegovina has fewer than forty kilometers of four-lane highways. The existing two-lane roads between major cities are quite narrow in places, lack guardrails, and are full of curves. Travel by road can be risky because of poorly maintained roads and morning and evening fog in the mountains. Driving in winter is hazardous because of fog, snow, and ice.

Local driving habits can be challenging given the road conditions, and many vehicles are in bad condition; approximately 100 motor vehicle accidents are reported daily throughout Bosnia and Herzegovina. Many accidents occur when drivers exceed safe speeds along winding mountain roads. Accidents involving drunk driving are an increasing problem. Driving after dark is especially dangerous, and street lighting is not common outside major towns. Road construction may be poorly marked, and automobiles share the road with heavy vehicles and agricultural equipment. Travelers should try to convoy with other vehicles, if possible, and plan their trip to ensure they travel only during daylight hours.

Although the number of service stations outside major cities has increased in recent years, many do not offer mechanical services. The emergency number for vehicle assistance and towing service is 1282. Speed limit signs are not always obvious or clear. The speed limit on the majority of roads is 60 km/h (37 mph); on straight stretches of road, it is generally 80 km/h (50 mph). The use of seat belts is mandatory. Talking on a cell phone while driving is prohibited. The tolerated blood alcohol level is 0.03 percent. Bosnian law requires having a safety vest, spare tire, jack, first aid kit, safety triangle, towing rope, and spare light bulbs in the car at all times.

In order to drive legally in Bosnia and Herzegovina, you must have an international driving permit in addition to your U.S. license.

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