Belarus Government

What is the capital of Belarus?

Country Name Belarus
Full Country Name Republic of Belarus
Local - Long Respublika Byelarus'/Respublika Belarus'
Local - Short Byelarus'/Belarus'
Former Name Belorussian (Byelorussian) Soviet Socialist Republic
Etymology- history of name The name is a compound of the Belarusian words "bel" (white) and "Rus" (the Old East Slavic ethnic designation) to form the meaning White Rusian or White Ruthenian
Government Type Presidential republic in name, although in fact a dictatorship
Capital Name Minsk
Capital - geographic coordinate 53 54 N, 27 34 E
Capital Time Difference UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Independence 25 August 1991 (from the Soviet Union)
National Holiday Independence Day, 3 July (1944); note - 3 July 1944 was the date Minsk was liberated from German troops, and 25 August 1991 was the date of independence from the Soviet Union
Constitution History: several previous; latest drafted between late 1991 and early 1994, signed 15 March 1994

Amendments: proposed by the president of the republic through petition to the National Assembly or by at least 150,000 eligible voters; approval required by at least two-thirds vote of members in both chambers or by a simple majority of eligible voters in a referendum

Belarus Capital City Map

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Belarus Government and Politics

Who is the president of Belarus?

Executive Branch: Chief of State: President Aleksandr LUKASHENKO (since 20 July 1994)

Head of Government: Prime Minister Sergey RUMAS (since 18 August 2018); First Deputy Prime Minister Dmitriy KRUTOY (since 29 November 2019); Deputy Prime Ministers Vladimir DVORNIK (since 28 March 2018), Igor LYASHENKO, Vladimir KUKHAREV, Igor PETRISHENKO (since 18 August 2018)

Cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president

Elections/Appointments: the president was directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (no term limits); the first election took place on 23 June and 10 July 1994; according to the 1994 constitution, the next election should have been held in 1999; however, Aleksandr LUKASHENKO extended his term to 2001 via a November 1996 referendum; subsequent election held on 9 September 2001; an October 2004 referendum ended presidential term limits and allowed the president to run and win in a third (19 March 2006), fourth (19 December 2010), and fifth election (11 October 2015); next election in 2020; prime minister and deputy prime ministers appointed by the president and approved by the National Assembly

Election Results: Aleksandr LUKASHENKO reelected president; percent of the vote - Aleksandr LUKASHENKO (independent) 83.5%, Tatstyana KARATKEVICH (Tell the Truth) 4.4%, Sergey GAYDUKEVICH (LDP) 3.3%, other 8.8%; note - election marred by electoral fraud
Citizenship Criteria: Citizenship by Birth: no

Citizenship by Descent Only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Belarus

Dual Citizenship Recognized: no

Residency Requirement for Naturalization: 7 years
Legal System: Civil law system; note - nearly all major codes (civil, civil procedure, criminal, criminal procedure, family, and labor) have been revised and came into force in 1999 or 2000
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
Legislative Branch: Description: bicameral National Assembly or Natsionalnoye Sobraniye consists of:

Council of the Republic or Sovet Respubliki (64 seats; 56 members indirectly elected by regional and Minsk city councils and 8 members appointed by the president; members serve 4-year terms)

House of Representatives or Palata Predstaviteley (110 seats; members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by absolute majority vote in 2 rounds if needed; members serve 4-year terms)


Council of the Republic - indirect election last held on 7 November 2019

House of Representatives - last held on 17 November 2019 (next to be held in 2023); OSCE observers determined that the election was neither free nor impartial and that vote counting was problematic in a number of polling stations; pro-LUKASHENKO candidates won every seat; international observers determined that the previous elections, on 28 September 2008, 23 September 2012, and 11 September 2016 also fell short of democratic standards, with pro-LUKASHENKO candidates winning every, or virtually every, seat

Election Results:

Council of the Republic - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NA; composition - NA

House of Representatives - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - KPB 11, Republican Party of Labor and Justice 6, Belarusian Patriotic Party 2, LDP 1, AP 1, independent 89; composition - men 66, women 44, percent of women 40%; note - total National Assembly percent of women - NA

Note: the US does not recognize the legitimacy of the National Assembly
Judicial Branch: Highest Court(s): Supreme Court (consists of the chairman, deputy chairman, and organized into several specialized panels including economic and military; number of judges set by the president of the republic and the court chairman); Constitutional Court (consists of 12 judges including a chairman and deputy chairman)

Judge Selection and Term of Office: Supreme Court judges appointed by the president with the consent of the Council of the Republic; judges initially appointed for 5 years and evaluated for life appointment; Constitutional Court judges - 6 including the court chairman appointed by the president and 6 elected by the House of Representatives; judges can serve for 11 years with an age limit of 70

Subordinate Courts: provincial (including Minsk city) courts; first instance (district) courts; economic courts; military courts
Regions or States: 6 provinces (voblastsi, singular - voblasts') and 1 municipality* (horad); Brest, Homyel' (Gomel'), Horad Minsk* (Minsk City), Hrodna (Grodno), Mahilyow (Mogilev), Minsk, Vitsyebsk (Vitebsk)

Note: administrative divisions have the same names as their administrative centers; Russian spelling is provided for reference when different from Belarusian
Political Parties and Leaders: Pro-government Parties:

Belarusian Agrarian Party or AP [Mikhail SHIMANSKIY]

Belarusian Patriotic Party [Nikolai ULAKHOVICH]

Belarusian Socialist Sporting Party [Vladimir ALEKSANDROVICH]

Communist Party of Belarus or KPB [Igor KARPENKO]

Liberal Democratic Party or LDP [Sergey GAYDUKEVICH]

Republican Party [Vladimir BELOZOR]

Republican Party of Labor and Justice [Vasiliy ZADNEPRYANIY]

Opposition Parties:

Belarusian Christian Democracy Party [Pavel SEVERINETS] (unregistered)

Belarusian Liberal Party of Freedom and Progress [Vladimir NOVOSYAD] (unregistered)

Belarusian Party of the Green [Anastasiya DOROFEYEVA]

Belarusian Party of the Left "Fair World" [Sergey KALYAKIN]

Belarusian Popular Front or BPF [Aleksey YANUKEVICH]

Belarusian Social-Democratic Assembly [Stanislav SHUSHKEVICH]

Belarusian Social Democratic Party ("Assembly") or BSDPH [Irina VESHTARD]

Belarusian Social Democratic Party (People's Assembly) [Nikolay STATKEVICH] (unregistered)

Christian Conservative Party or BPF [Zyanon PAZNYAK]

United Civic Party or UCP [Anatoliy LEBEDKO]
International Law Organization Participation: Has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt
International Organization Participation: BSEC (observer), CBSS (observer), CEI, CIS, CSTO, EAEC, EAEU, EAPC, EBRD, FAO, GCTU, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (NGOs), ICRM, IDA, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, NAM, NSG, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, PFP, SCO (dialogue member), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO (observer), ZC
Diplomatic Representation in the US: Chief of Mission: Ambassador (vacant; recalled by Belarus in 2008); Charge d'Affaires Pavel SHIDLOVSKIY (since 23 April 2014)

Chancery: 1619 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20009

Telephone: [1] (202) 986-1606

FAX: [1] (202) 986-1805

Consulate(s) General: New York
Diplomatic Representation from US: Chief of Mission: Ambassador (vacant; left in 2008 upon the insistence of Belarusian Government); Charge d'Affaires Robert RILEY (since 22 August 2016)

Embassy: 46 Starovilenskaya Street, Minsk 220002

Mailing Address: Unit 7010 Box 100, DPO AE 09769

Telephone: [375] (17) 210-1283

FAX: [375] (17) 234-7853
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