What is the terrain and geography like in Bahrain?
Five of the six principal islands are linked by a causeway system. Bahrain Island, where the capital city of Manama is located, is the largest. It is about 30 miles long and 10–12 miles wide. A four-lane causeway links Manama with the island and town of Muharraq, site of the newly expanded international airport. Bridges also connect Sitra, Nabih Saleh, and Um al-Nassan Islands to Bahrain Island, which is linked to the mainland of Saudi Arabia by a causeway to Dhahran and Al-Khobar.
Bahrain, with a desert climate, is one of the world's hottest areas. Its hottest and most humid weather is from June through September with temperatures over 110°F most days. The weather is pleasant from November through May (55°-85°F) with infrequent rainfall. The combination of poor soil drainage and few storm sewers can result in muddy city streets and puddles.
A narrow strip of land along the northern and northwestern coasts of Bahrain Island is cultivated with date palms, alfalfa, and vegetables. These garden areas are rapidly disappearing due to depleted water resources and development. A desert, punctuated by a north-south plateau, extends south of the cultivated area. Surrounding this plateau is a rolling basin surrounded by overhanging bluffs sloping into the sea. The ground is hard and infertile with a gravel surface until the spring when a pale, soft green covering appears on the desert following the winter rains. It provides a welcome contrast to the summer's aridity.
The highest point in Bahrain is the Jebel Dukhan, 134 meters above sea level. The majority of Bahrain's oil wells are in this area. The Arabian Gulf has an average depth of only 35 meters but is much shallower in the vicinity of Bahrain.