Where is Australia located?

What countries border Australia?

Australia Weather

What is the current weather in Australia?

Australia Facts and Culture

What is Australia famous for?

  • Cultural Attributes: Australians have a good sense of humor and anything is a topic for humor. Australians have a sense of national... More
  • Family: More than 85% of Australians live in urban areas, mostly on the east coast. Sydney and Melbourne are home to... More
  • Personal Apperance: Australians will frequently dress in styles that are popular in Europe and other western countries. In winter, jumpers or sweaters... More
  • Recreation: The national sport Australian-rules football ( "Aussie Rules") a combination of rugby and soccer was invented in Melbourne about 1858.... More
  • Food and Recipes: “Tucker” is the Aussie word for food. Because of Australia's many immigrant communities, many of the dishes have European and... More
  • Visiting: Australian catchphrases include “G'day mate!”, “no worries”, “not a problem” and “Good on yer!”. Visiting without a prior appointment is... More

Australia Facts

What is the capital of Australia?

Capital Canberra
Government Type federal parliamentary democracy under a constitutional monarchy; a Commonwealth realm
Currency Australian Dollar (AUD)
Total Area 2,988,885 Square Miles
7,741,220 Square Kilometers
Location Oceania, the continent between the Indian Ocean and the South Pacific Ocean
Language English, native languages
GDP - real growth rate 2.9%
GDP - per capita (PPP) $48,800.00 (USD)

Australia Demographics

What is the population of Australia?

Ethnic Group - note data represent self-identified ancestry, with the option of reporting two ancestries
Ethnic Groups English 33%, Australian 29.9%, Irish 9.5%, Scottish 8.6%, Chinese 5.5%, Italian 4.4%, German 4%, Indian 3.1%, Australian Aboriginal 2.9%, Greek 1.7%, unspecified 4.7%
Language - note data represent language spoken at home
Languages English 72%, Mandarin 2.7%, Arabic 1.4%, Vietnamese 1.3%, Cantonese 1.2%, other 15.7%, unspecified 5.7%
Nationality Noun noun: Australian(s)

adjective: Australian
Population 26,768,598
Population Growth Rate 1.13%
Population in Major Urban Areas 5.235 million Melbourne, 5.121 million Sydney, 2.505 million Brisbane, 2.118 million Perth, 1.367 million Adelaide, 472,000 CANBERRA (capital)
Urban Population urban population: 86.6% of total population

rate of urbanization: 1.27% annual rate of change

note: data include Christmas Island, Cocos Islands, and Norfolk Island
Population: Male/Female male: 13,305,110

female: 13,463,488

Australia Government

What type of government does Australia have?

Executive Branch chief of state: King CHARLES III (since 8 September 2022); represented by Governor General David HURLEY (since 1 July 2019)

previous chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (6 February 1952 - 8 September 2022)

head of government: Prime Minister Anthony ALBANESE (since 23 May 2022)

cabinet: Cabinet nominated by the prime minister from among members of Parliament and sworn in by the governor general

elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; governor general appointed by the monarch on the recommendation of the prime minister; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or majority coalition is sworn in as prime minister by the governor general
Suffrage 18 years of age; universal and compulsory
Citizenship citizenship by birth: no

citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen or permanent resident of Australia

dual citizenship recognized: yes

residency requirement for naturalization: 4 years
National Holiday Australia Day (commemorates the arrival of the First Fleet of Australian settlers), 26 January (1788); ANZAC Day (commemorates the anniversary of the landing of troops of the Australian and New Zealand Army Corps during World War I at Gallipoli, Turkey), 25 April (1915)
Constitution history: approved in a series of referenda from 1898 through 1900 and became law 9 July 1900, effective 1 January 1901

amendments: proposed by Parliament; passage requires approval of a referendum bill by absolute majority vote in both houses of Parliament, approval in a referendum by a majority of voters in at least four states and in the territories, and Royal Assent; proposals that would reduce a state’s representation in either house or change a state’s boundaries require that state’s approval prior to Royal Assent; amended several times, last in 1977
Independence 1 January 1901 (from the federation of UK colonies)

Australia Video

YouTube: Devin Graham Australia - Land Down Under

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Australia Geography

What environmental issues does Australia have?

Overview Australia is a large, comparatively dry, and sparsely inhabited continent, almost as large as the 48 contiguous U.S. states. Australia, the only continent that consists of a single nation, is also the only inhabited continent that is isolated from all others (total coastline exceeds 22,000 miles). The average elevation is about 985 feet, which makes it the flattest continent on earth. Australia has no navigable rivers of any commercial significance.
Climate Australia is a large, comparatively dry, and sparsely inhabited continent, almost as large as the 48 contiguous U.S. states. Australia, the only continent that consists of a single nation, is also the only inhabited continent that is isolated from all others (total coastline exceeds 22,000 miles). The average elevation is about 985 feet, which makes it the flattest continent on earth. This is among the prime reasons for sparse annual rainfall--16.5 inches, which is less than two-thirds of the world average (26 inches). Further, the rain falls mainly on coastal regions: forty percent of the surface gets less than 10 inches per year, and annual evaporation exceeds annual rainfall on about three-quarters of the land. Overall runoff is less than half that of the Mississippi basin; Australia has no navigable rivers of any commercial significance.

In general, the country is warmer than the U.S. (the northern one-third is in the Tropics, the rest in the Temperate Zone). Temperature extremes are much less pronounced. Sydney's average daytime temperature in the coldest month (July) is 59°F; in the warmest month (January), 81°F.
Environment - Current Issues Soil erosion from overgrazing, industrial development, urbanization, and poor farming practices; soil salinity rising due to the use of poor quality water; desertification; clearing for agricultural purposes threatens the natural habitat of many unique animal and plant species; the Great Barrier Reef off the northeast coast, the largest coral reef in the world, is threatened by increased shipping and its popularity as a tourist site; limited natural fresh water resources
Environment - International Agreements Party To: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Terrain Mostly low plateau with deserts; fertile plain in southeast

Australia Economy

How big is the Australia economy?

Economic Overview Australia is an open market with minimal restrictions on imports of goods and services. The process of opening up has increased productivity, stimulated growth, and made the economy more flexible and dynamic. Australia plays an active role in the WTO, APEC, the G20, and other trade forums. Australia’s free trade agreement (FTA) with China entered into force in 2015, adding to existing FTAs with the Republic of Korea, Japan, Chile, Malaysia, New Zealand, Singapore, Thailand, and the US, and a regional FTA with ASEAN and New Zealand. Australia continues to negotiate bilateral agreements with Indonesia, as well as larger agreements with its Pacific neighbors and the Gulf Cooperation Council countries, and an Asia-wide Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership that includes the 10 ASEAN countries and China, Japan, Korea, New Zealand, and India.

Australia is a significant exporter of natural resources, energy, and food. Australia's abundant and diverse natural resources attract high levels of foreign investment and include extensive reserves of coal, iron, copper, gold, natural gas, uranium, and renewable energy sources. A series of major investments, such as the US $40 billion Gorgon Liquid Natural Gas Project, will significantly expand the resources sector.

For nearly two decades up till 2017, Australia had benefited from a dramatic surge in its terms of trade. As export prices increased faster than import prices, the economy experienced continuous growth, low unemployment, contained inflation, very low public debt, and a strong and stable financial system. Australia entered 2018 facing a range of growth constraints, principally driven by the sharp fall in global prices of key export commodities. Demand for resources and energy from Asia and especially China is growing at a slower pace and sharp drops in export prices have impacted growth.
Industries Mining, industrial and transportation equipment, food processing, chemicals, steel
Currency Name and Code Australian Dollar (AUD)
Export Partners China 32.2%, Japan 15.9%, South Korea 7.1%, United States 5.4%, India 4.2%
Import Partners China 23%, United States 11.2%, Japan 7.4%, South Korea 5.5%, Thailand 5.1%, Germany 4.6%

Australia News and Current Events

What current events are happening in Australia?
Source: Google News

Australia Travel Information

What makes Australia a unique country to travel to?

Country Description

Australia is a highly developed, stable democracy with a federal-state system. Tourist facilities are widely available.


Although U.S citizens are not specifically targeted for crime, travelers should be aware that robberies, burglaries, assault, and auto theft are common in Australia’s larger cities. Weapons are increasingly used in such crimes, which also may be associated with drug trafficking, gang activities, and drug or alcohol usage. Foreign visitors in popular tourist areas are targets for pickpockets, purse-snatchers, and petty thieves. Be careful when consuming alcohol with unfamiliar people, as drink spiking can occur; appropriate security precautions should be taken, especially at night, to avoid becoming a target of opportunity.

Do not buy counterfeit and pirated goods, even if they are widely available. Not only are the bootlegs illegal in the United States, but if you purchase them you may also be breaking local law.

Criminal Penalties

While you are traveling in Australia, you are subject to its laws even if you are a U.S. citizen. Foreign laws and legal systems can be vastly different than our own. You may be taken in for questioning if you don’t have your passport with you. In some places, it is illegal to take pictures of certain buildings, such as inside certain areas of Australian airports, near prisons, and at military bases. If you break local laws, your U.S. passport won’t help. It’s very important to know what’s legal and what’s not where you are going. In Australia, driving under the influence could land you immediately in jail. If you violate Australian laws, even unknowingly, you may be expelled, arrested, or imprisoned. There are also some things that might be legal in the country you visit, but still illegal in the United States. You can be prosecuted under U.S. law if you buy pirated goods. Engaging in sexual conduct with children or using or disseminating child pornography in a foreign country is a crime prosecutable in the United States. If you break local laws in Australia, your U.S. passport won’t help you avoid arrest or prosecution. Penalties for possessing, using, or trafficking illegal drugs in Australia are severe, and convicted offenders can expect long jail sentences and heavy fines. Please be aware that all objectionable material is subject to declaration and inspection and may be illegal in Australia. Objectionable material includes child pornography, bestiality, explicit sexual violence, and graphic degradation, as well as terrorism-related material and anything providing instruction in or encouraging drug use, crime, or violence. It’s very important to know what’s legal and what’s not wherever you go.

While some countries will automatically notify the nearest U.S. embassy or consulate if a U.S. citizen is detained or arrested in a foreign country, that might not always be the case. To ensure that the United States is aware of your circumstances, request that the police and prison officials notify the nearest U.S. embassy or consulate as soon as you are arrested or detained overseas.


English 72%, Mandarin 2.7%, Arabic 1.4%, Vietnamese 1.3%, Cantonese 1.2%, other 15.7%, unspecified 5.7%

Medical Facilities and Health Information

Excellent medical care is available in Australia. Serious medical problems requiring hospitalization and/or medical evacuation to the United States can cost tens of thousands of dollars. Most doctors and hospitals expect immediate cash/credit card payments for health services. We recommend travel insurance.

Safety and Security

Australia has an alert system for possible terrorist attacks. The threat levels range from “low” to “high.” The Australian Attorney General's Office website has up-to-date information regarding the current terrorism threat level. Depending on the alert, you should maintain a high level of vigilance and take appropriate steps to increase your security awareness. Travelers may also contact the Australian National Security Hotline at 61-1-800-123-400.

Traffic Safety and Road Conditions

While in Australia, you may encounter road conditions that differ significantly from those in the United States. The information below concerning driving in Australia is provided for general reference only and may not be totally accurate in a particular location or circumstance.

Traffic operates on the left side of the road, and all vehicles use right-hand drive. Please use caution when crossing streets and when driving. When crossing roads on foot, make sure you look carefully in all directions. Wearing a seat belt is mandatory, and fines apply for not wearing them. Speed limits and laws regarding driving while intoxicated are rigorously enforced, and random breath testing of a driver's blood alcohol limit is a common occurrence. Roads and streets are frequently narrower and less graded than U.S. highways. Outside major metropolitan areas, most highways are two-lane roads with significant distances between destinations. Speed limits vary throughout Australia and are measured in kilometers, not miles. Be aware that speed cameras are everywhere and you will be ticketed for driving over the speed limit.

When driving in Australia, exercise caution while passing or merging with adjacent traffic. If driving in rural areas, be cautious of free-roaming animals, such as kangaroos, and "road-trains" (several semi-truck trailers connected together). Passing road trains is dangerous, and you should pull over to allow on-coming road trains to pass to avoid being sideswiped. A number of fatalities have occurred in the Northern Territory where vehicles driven at high rates of speed have skidded and overturned after hitting loose gravel on the shoulder of the road. If you have no experience with a 4-wheel drive vehicle, you should exercise common sense when driving in the Australian outback.

Texting or holding your phone while driving is against the law, but you can use a hands-free system to communicate while driving. For specific information concerning Australian driving permits, vehicle inspection, road tax, mandatory insurance, and the rental and operation of motor vehicles in Australia, visit the Australian Tourist Commission website.

Each state/territory has different rules about using a foreign driver’s license and the conditions under which a visitor might have to get an international driver’s license. In some cases, you can apply for a driver’s license from the state in Australia where you intend to remain for the duration of your stay in Australia.

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